• 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
 • 
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-
. ..


: B
B
-
B 10 /


..
-44


..

____________________________
:
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________ B1 2
................................................2 3
. .........................3 4 -
............................4 5
..................................9 5.1
..9 5.2
.......................11 5.3
..................13 5.4
.........13 5.5 .
.....................................15 6
...........15 6.1
...................................15 6.2
...................................18 6.3
...................20 6.4
. .......................22 6.5
. .................24 6.6
...............................27 7
. ....................................28 7.1
..................................28 7.2
. ...............................28 7.3
. ........................28 7.4 ,
. ..............................29 7.4.0
- . ....29 7.4.1
- ..............30 7.4.2 -
...............................30 7.4.3 -
..............31 7.4.4 -
...............................31 7.4.5 -
...............................31 7.4.6
- ............................31 7.4.7
- .............32 7.4.6
- ....................32 7.4.8
- ..............32 7.4.8
- ...32 7.4.9
- ....................32 7.4.10
- ..33 7.4.11 -
...................33 7.4.12
-- ..33 7.4.13
-- ..34 7.4.14
- .........................34 7.4.15 -
.....................................34 7.5 .
........................................35 7.5.1 1
- .................35 7.5.2 2
- .....36 7.6 .
......................................37 7.7
...............................................38 8
..............................................39 ................................................40 B2 -


-
.
-



.



-

. -

,


, -



. ,

-
,
,


-
.

-

. -

( , -

.) -

: -

, -

, ..

-

.
,
,

-
.



, -
,
, .. B3
.
1
-

, ,

. -

,

,
.

,

.


, -
.


()
, -
,
.

,
5000
/ , 25
.
3, -
4
.
5000 / 2 -

, 25. -

2, -
3
.

2 - 8

. 25-100

3 1 12-50
3 2 3.
,

, -
. B4
- B
.

1. -
Ŀ





Ĵ

0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Ĵ


Ĵ

[/3] 801 785 768 752 735 718 700
Ĵ

[*] 4.60 2.39 1.33 3.26 0.80 0.38 0.29
Ĵ
[/*] 2363 2661 2958
3256 3549 3842 4136
Ĵ
[/*]0.1530.1510.1470.1440.1410.1370.134
Ĵ
.*1000
[/] 24.5 22.6 20.9 19.3 17.6 15.7 14.0
Ĵ


*1000 [1/K] 1.01 1.05 1.08
1.12 1.16 1.20 1.27
Ĵ
dH
[K/]774.4749.3724.2699.1669.8636.3602.8
Ĵ


[] 1.2 4.3 14.1 38.5 92.3194.7372.0
Ĵ


Ĵ

[/3] 817 803 788 774 759 742 728
Ĵ

[*] 7.0 4.1 2.4 1.48 1.0 0.7 0.5
Ĵ
[/*] 2053 2346 2640
2933 3268 3561 3855
Ĵ
[/*]0.1440.1420.1380.1350.1310.1280.125
Ĵ
.*1000
[/] 26.2 24.6 22.9 21.2 19.5 17.8 16.0
Ĵ


*1000 [1/K] 0.85 0.88 0.91
0.95 0.99 1.05 1.12
Ĵ
dH
[K/] 681 664 643 625 604 587 540
Ĵ


[]
0.6 2.5 8.0 22.7 60.0160.0


[2] [3]

2 C -
[4]
Ŀ
Y t
1 2
Ĵ
0.00 00.00
108.1
4.65 11.20
106.2 1.02
1.00
11.55 25.10
103.4 1.01
1.01
21.85 42.70 99.9
1.02 1.00

23.05 44.10 99.4
1.02 1.01

34.55 58.45 95.8
1.02 1.02

38.70 62.90 94.9
1.01 1.00

44.10 67.70 93.7
1.00 1.00

54.55 75.80 90.9
1.01 1.03

63.80 82.45 88.7
1.02 1.04

74.50 88.75 86.9
1.00 1.01

82.75 92.95 85.4
1.00 1.00

94.85 98.05 83.2
1.01 1.02


100.00 100.00 82.4


B5
B. [1]5.1
.

W -

:
F = P +
W
F*x'(f)
= P*x'(p) + W*x'(w)
W =
F*(x'(p)-x'(f))/(x'(p)-x'(w))
W =
10000*(0.95-0.50)/(0.95-0.05) = 5000 / 1.3889 /
P = F -
W = 10000-5000 = 5000 / 1.3889 /


1 =
60.096 / -
2 =
74.123 / -
x(i) =
x'(i)/M1/(x'(i)/M1+(1-x'(i))/M2)
x(f) =
0.50/60.096/(0.50/60.096+0.50/74.123)=0.552254
x(p) =
0.95/60.096/(0.95/60.096+0.05/74.123)=0.959075
x(w) =
0.05/60.096/(0.05/60.096+0.95/74.123)=0.060959




R, R -

- , -

(-
)
= R/Rmin. N(R+1)

(N - -

, , R+1 - ,
,
).
Rmin =
(x(p)-y~(f))/((y~(f)-x(f))
Rmin =
(0.9592254-0.763054)/(0.763054-0.552254) = 0.93
Ŀ
R N N(R+1) R N N(R+1)
Ĵ
1.0761.000916.69333.401191.5421.433710.69826.03575

1.1161.037715.20630.986611.5811.470510.50325.94700

1.1361.056114.75630.340091.6111.498110.35525.86845

1.1551.074514.35829.787251.6161.502710.33825.85303

1.2031.116013.47528.513041.6261.511910.27925.82015

1.2281.134413.14528.056461.6361.521110.22725.78356

1.2371.143612.99327.853311.6461.530310.17325.74266

1.2461.152812.90627.784141.6641.544110.09125.67426

1.2551.162012.82327.72433@1.6751.558010.01125.60751*
1.2691.180412.66527.616551.6851.5672
9.97625.61147
1.2891.198812.40727.281471.7371.6086
9.85325.70312
1.3241.231111.95426.671921.7351.6132
9.84125.71647
1.3531.258711.74426.527161.7551.6270
9.80325.75300
1.4571.355411.02725.973131.7641.6408
9.76625.79084
1.5071.401410.83926.007871.8041.6777
9.67125.89577


Ropt N(R+1) N R.

L G -

, :
L =
PRM/Mp
L =
PRM/Mp + FM/Mf
x =
(x(f)+x(p))/2 = (0.552254+0.959075)/2=0.7557 /
x =
(x(f)+x(w))/2 = (0.552254+0.060959)/2=0.3066 /
M =
M1*x+M2(1-x) = 0.7557*60.096+(1-0.7557)*74.123=63.52 /
M =
M1*x+M2(1-x) = 0.3066*60.096+(1-0.3066)*74.123=69.82 /
Mp =
x(p)*M1 + (1-x(p))*M2
Mf =
x(f)*M1 + (1-x(f))*M2
Mw =
x(w)*M1 + (1-x(w))*M2
Mp =
0.959075*60.096+(1-0.959075)*74.123=60.67 /
Mf =
0.552254*60.096+(1-0.552254)*74.123=66.38 /
Mw =
0.060959*60.096+(1-0.060959)*74.123=73.28 /
L =
5000*1.558*63.52/3600/60.67 = 2.2655 /
L =
5000*1.558*69.82/3600/60.67+10000*69.82/3600/66.38=5.4120 /
G =
P(R+1)M()/
G =
P(R+1)M()/
=
((f)+(p))/2 = (0.714803+0.959075)/2=0.837 /
=
((f)+(w))/2 = (0.714803+0.060959)/2=0.388 /
M()
= M1* + M2(1-)
M()
= M1* + M2(1-)
M()
= 0.837*60.096+(1-0.837)*74.123 = 62.383 /
M()
= 0.388*60.096+(1-0.388)*74.123 = 68.682 /
G =
5000*(1+1.558)*62.383/3600/60.67 = 3.6531 /
G =
5000*(1+1.558)*68.682/3600/60.67 = 4.0220 /
G = (G
+ G)/2 = (3.6531+4.0220)/2 = 3.8376 /
i -
i
xi/yi -
i / [1]5.2


-

5.35 [1]
w =
[0.0155/d
2/3]*(px/py*h)
1/2
d -

h -



t(f)
= 90.72
t(w) =
105.59
t(p)
= 83.03 C
t =
(t(f)+t(p))/2 = (90.72+83.03)/2 = 86.875 C
t =
(t(f)+t(w))/2 = (90.72+105.59)/2 = 98.155 C
x' =
(x'(f)+x'(p))/2 = (0.50+0.95)/2 = 0.725 /
x' =
(x'(f)+x'(w))/2 = (0.50+0.05)/2 = 0.275 /
px() =
735.6 /3
p() =
737 /3
p(f) =
737.9 /
3
p(w) =
736.8 /
3
p(p) =
733.6 /
3
d =
x'd(1)+(1-x')*d(2)
d(f)
= 623.4 /
d(w)
= 624.3 /
d(p)
= 661.6 /


t =
(t(f)+t(w))/2 = (96.45+107.12)/2 = 101.785 C
t =
(t(f)+t(p))/2 = (96.45+84.13)/2 = 90.29 C
py() =
M()*To/(22.4*(To+t)
py() =
M()*To/(22.4*(To+t)
py() =
62.383*273/(22.4*(273.15+90.29)) = 2.092 /
3
py() =
68.682*273/(22.4*(273.15+101.785)) = 2.233 /
3
() =
60.67*273/(22.4*(273.15+84.13)) = 2.070
/
3
(f) =
66.38*273/(22.4*(273.15+96.45)) = 2.189 /
3
(w) =
73.28*273/(22.4*(273.15+107.2)) = 2.348 /
3
Vy() =
G/py() = 3.6531/2.092 = 1.747 3/c
Vy() =
G/py() = 4.0220/2.233 = 1.801 3/c
Vy = (1.801+1.747)/2 = 1.774
3/c
t =
((t+t)+(t+t))/4
t =
(98.155+86.875+101.785+90.29)/4 = 94.28 C
t=
(t+t)/2 = (98.155+86.875)/2 = 92.52
ty=
(t+t)/2 = (101.785+90.29)/2 = 96.04 C
w =
[0.0155/dk
2/3]*sqrt(px/py*(H-1))
w =
0.0155/0.08**(2/3)*sqrt(735.6/2.092*(0.3-0.07)) = 0.751 /
w =
0.0155/0.08**(2/3)*sqrt(737/2.233*(0.3-0.07)) = 0.727 /
d =
sqrt(4*G/(3.1415*w*py()))
d =
sqrt(4*G/(3.1415*w*py()))
d =
sqrt(4*3.6531/(3.1415*0.751*2.092)) = 1.72
d =
sqrt(4*4.0220/(3.1415*0.727*2.233)) = 1.78

1.8 . -

:
w =
(w+w)/2*(d/d) = (0.751+0.727)/2*sqr(1.78/1.8) = 0.723 /

5.2 [1]
1800

- :
Ŀ


Ĵ


D
1.8



2.54


L
25.88


1.86


Lc
1.419



0.334


S 0.252


Fc
% 9.92

m 176



0.6









117


10









84


8




140


d 100



2



15


1
70


h 30

k 0-10

h 5-40

w()
= 0.8*w() = 0.8*0.723 = 0.58 /
wo' =
sqrt(px*g*h/q/py) -
wo' =
sqrt(736.3/2.163*9.81/5*0.015) = 3.165 /
w' = Fc*wo' = 0.0107*4.476 = 0.479 /
< 0.58 / ( )
wo = w()/Fc = 0.58/0.0992 = 5.85 / (
)
px =
(px()+px())/2 = (735.6+737)/2 = 736.3 /3
py =
(py()+py())/2 = (2.092+2.233)/2 = 2.1625 /3

17-20 624 [2] = 0.4
q -
= 5 .
h -
[1]5.3

dp =
dp1 + dp2 + dp3 [2]
. 17.23
dp -
dp1 -
c
dp2 -

dp3 -
,
r -
( 0.5 )
-
dp1 =
q*py*wo/2 = 5*2.163*sqr(5.42)/2 = 159
dh = (Vx/(1.85*Lc*r))
2/3 = (G/(px*1.85*Lc*r))
2/3
dh =
(3.8376/(736.3*1.85*1.419*0.5))**(2/3) = 0.025
dp2 =
1.3*g*r*px*(h+0.5*h+dh)
dp2 =
1.3*9.81*0.5*736.3*(0.03+0.5*0.015+0.025) = 293.5
dp3 =
4/d = 4/(4*b*l/(2*(b+l)))
dp3 =
4*0.016/(4*0.008*0.015/(2*(0.008+0.015))) = 6.1
dp =
159+293.5+6=458.5
dp() = dp2+dp3 = 293.5+6 = 299.5 [1]5.4


.
tcp =
94.28 C
tcp =
92.52
ty =
96.04 C
x(tcp)
= 0.4867
y~(tcp)
= 0.7133
acp =
y~*(1-x)/(x*(1-y~) -
acp =
0.7133*(1-0.4867)/(0.4867*(1-0.7133)) = 2.624
(92.52)
= ln(1)*xf + ln(2)*(1-xf)
(92.52)
= exp(ln(0.43)*0.5523+ln(0.83)*(1-0.5523)) = 0.61 *
Dy =
[4.3e-7*T
3/2]/[p*(va
1/3+vb
1/3)]*sqrt(1/Ma+1/Mb) 16.25 [2]
Dy =
0.00000638 /

(P - [])
Dy =
1.013e-8*T
1.75/(P*(va
1/3+vb
1/3)]*sqrt(1/Ma+1/Mb)
Dy =
0.00000640 /
va =
3*14.8+8*3.7+9.9 = 83.9 6.3 [3]
vb =
4*14.8+10*3.7+9.9 = 106.1
Dx' =
1e-6/[2.65*sqrt()(va1/3+vb1/3)]**sqrt(1/Ma+1/Mb) 16.26 [2]
Dx' =
1.01*10
-9 /
Dx =
Dx'*(1+b*(t-20)) = 1.01e-9*(1+0.0335*(92.5-20)) = 3.46*10
-9 /
b =
0.2*sqrt()/p
1/3 = 0.2*sqrt(2.39)/(785**(1/3))=0.0335
1 =
60.096 / 2 =
74.123 /

acp* = 2.624*0.61 = 1.6, 3.9 [1] -
,


= 0.43

-

(
).



(
). [2]
Ey = 1 - exp(-noy)
noy = Kyf*M()/(w*)
-
m -

noy -

E = 1 - exp(-noy) 1/noy = 1/ny +
m/l*1/nx
Re =
wdp/ = 0.58*1*2.1663/0.0000097=129531
ny =
Dy/w*(0.79*Re+110000)*T/273*S/S
19-23 [2]
nx =
38000*S/Vx*Dx*(Pr)
0.62
19-24 [2]
ny =
6.39e-6/0.58*(0.79*129531+11000)*(92.5+273)/273*1.8575/2.5447
ny =
1.22
nx =
38000*1.8575/0.00308*3.46e-9*240**0.62=2.371
nx =
38000*1.8575/0.00734*3.46e-9*240**0.62=0.995
Vx =
L/px() = 2.2655/735.6 = 0.00308
3/
Vx =
L/p() = 5.4120/737 = 0.00734
3/
Pr' =
/px/Dx = 0.00061/736.3/3.46e-9 = 240
l =
R/(R+1) = 1.56/2.56 = 0.61
l =
(R+F/P)/(R+1) = (1.56+10000/5000)/2.56 = 1.39
yk = yp
+ Ey*(y~-yp)
6.43 [1]
Ŀ

x m
l noy E Y~ Yp Yk
Ĵ
0.00 2.5234 1.39 2.642 0.938 00.00 0.00 0.00
4.65 2.2360 1.39 2.448 0.918 11.20 4.65 10.63
11.55
1.8797 1.39 2.189 0.897
25.10 13.32 23.77
21.85
1.4842 1.39 1.890 0.859
42.70 26.95 40.33
23.05
1.4425 1.39 1.867 0.845
44.10 28.54 41.68
34.55
1.0659 1.39 1.596 0.805
58.45 43.76 55.46
38.70
0.9553 1.39 1.518 0.784
62.90 49.25 59.89
44.10
0.8486 1.39 1.434 0.765
67.70 56.40 65.01
54.55
0.7443 0.61 1.334 0.748
75.80 70.10 74.30
63.80
0.6562 0.61 1.272 0.728
82.45 76.35 80.74
74.50
0.5417 0.61 1.190 0.708
88.75 82.87 86.97
82.75
0.4666 0.61 1.144 0.680
92.95 87.89 91.34
94.85
0.3877 0.61 1.097 0.665
98.05 95.26 97.11
100.00
0.3682 0.61 1.071 0.661
100.00 100.00 100.00


N = 14 (



-

). [1] 235
Z = 1

Z = 2

H = (N-1)*H + Z + Z = 14*0.4+1+2 = 8.6
dP = dp*N = 464.5*14 = 6503 [1]5.5
.

- 3 -

, , -

. -

35. B6
@6.1



-


G =
4.0220 / ,
105.6

:
p(w) = 736.8 /
3,
[3] 537,549
d(w)
= 624.3 / = r(w),
(w) = 0.63 *,
(w) = 0.0182 /,
(w) = 3658 /*,
(w) = 2.348 /
3
la(w) = 0.128 /(*)

-

= 2.755 /. r() = 2179
/,
t() = 130 . -


= 935 /
3,
() =
0.212 * la() = 0.686 /(*).
,
-

:
1 =
1.21*la*(p*r*g/(()**q))
1/3 = Aq
-1/3 [1]
2.23

:
la()
1.3p(w)
0.5q
0.6
a2 =
780 = Bq
0.6
(w)
0.5r(w)
0.6(w)
0.6(w)
0.3(w)
0.3

-

,
1/ =
dtcp/q = 1/a1 + (/la) + 1/a2

1 2

q
f(q) =
1/A*q4/3 + [(/la)]*q + 1/B*q0.4 -dtcp = 0 ()
1.

Q(w) =
Q(p)+G(p)*C(p)*t(p)+G(w)*C(w)*t(w)-G(f)*C(f)*t(f)+Q()
Q(p) =
P(R+1)*r(p) = 1.388889*(1.558+1)*661600=2350518
G(p)*C(p)*t(p)
= 1.3889*3091*83.03 = 356455
G(w)*C(w)*t(w)
= 1.3889*3658*105.6 = 536511
G(f)*C(f)*t(f)
= 2.7778*3007*90.72 = 757770
Q(w) =
1.05(2350518+356455+536511-757770)=2485714
2.

G() =
Q/r() = 2485714/2179000 = 1.141 /c
3.

dtcp =
130-105.6 = 24.4 C
4.
2.1 [1]
-

= 250 /(). -


Fop =
Q/K*dtcp = 2485714/(320*24.4) = 318
2.9 [1]
H = 4
D = 1.2 d = 25 2 F = 340
5.
() q
A =
1.21*0.686*(935**2*2179000*9.81/(0.000212*4))**1/3 = 232717
B =
780*0.128**1.3*737**0.5/
(0.0182**0.5*624300**0.6*2.348**0.6*3658**0.3*0.00063**0.3)=1.6855

= 2 , - la = 17.5 /(*)


(

) :
(/la)
= 0.002/17.5+1/5800=0.000287 /

() q = 7875 . -

: ( q < 9100 - -

!)
F = Q/q
= 2485714/7875=315.65



, -

2.28 [1] :
q =
0.14*r*py
0.5*(g*p*)
0.25
q =
0.14*2179000*sqrt(2.348)*(9.81*0.0182*736.8)**0.25
q =
1583095 /(*)

.
a1 = Aq
-1/3 = 232717*7875**(-1/3) = 11697.09 /(*)
a2 = Bq
0.6 = 1.6855*7875**0.6 = 366.84 /(*)
K =
1/(1/11697.09+1/366.84+0.000287) = 322.74 /(*)
=
(340-315)*100/315=8%

:
D =
0.7*sqrt(n*d) = d*0.7*sqrt(n) = 0.7*0.021*sqrt(1083) =0.484
6.
.

, 130
.

- .


35 . to =
20 C
-

4.71 [3]
1 =
9.74+0.07*dt = 9.74+0.07*(35-20) = 10.8 /()

q =
a1(t-to) = 10.8*(35-20) = 162 /

, -

, : q = K(t-to) = la/*(t-to)

(la = 0.098 )
=
la/q*(t-to) = 0.098/162*(130-20) = 0.067
Ŀ



Ĵ


Ĵ


D 1200


D 484


d 252


n 1083


H 4

F 340
@6.2



-

G(1) = 3.5528 /
.
r(1) = 661600 /,

t(1) = 83 C. la(1) = 0.135 /(*), (1) = 733.6 /
3,
=
0.00075 *. t(2) = 20
t(2) = 35 .

t2 = 27.5 C -
2
= 997 /
3, 2 = 4182 /(*), la(2) = 0.616 /(),
(2) =
0.00082 *, Pr = 2*(2)/la(2) = 5.56.
1.

Q =
P(R+1)*r(1) = 1.388889*(1.558+1)*661600=2350518
2.

G(2) =
Q/(C(2)*dt) = 2350518/(4180*(35-20))=37.49 /
3.

dtcp =
((83-20)-(83-35))/ln((83-20)/(83-35))=55.16 C
4.
2.1 [1] = 450 /(). -
:
Fop =
Q/(K*dtcp) = 2350518/(450*55.16) = 95

Re(2) = 15000 (n)

(z) d = 252 .
n/z =
4*G(2)/(pi*d*(2)*Re(2))
n/z =
4*38.55/(3.1416*0.021*0.00082*15000) = 190
5.

.

2.9 [1] n/z -

D = 800 , -

252 , z = 4 n = 404 .
n/z =
404/4 = 101




L = 4 ; F = 127 D = 0.8 .
Re(2) =
4*G(2)*z/(pi*d*(2)*n)
Re(2) =
4*37.49*4/(3.1416*0.021*0.00082*404)=27445


2.12 [1]

,
t.
(
).
2 =
la(2)/d*0.023*Re
0.8*Pr
0.4
2 =
0.616/0.021*0.023*27445**0.8*5.56**0.4 = 4763 /()

,


, 2.24 [1]
a1 =
3.78*la(1)*(p(1)d*n/((1)*G(1))
1/3
a1 =
3.78*0.135*((733.6**2)*0.025*404/(0.00075*3.5528))**(1/3)=647.18




(/la)
= 0.002/17.5+1/1860+1/11600=0.000738 */
=
1/(1/4763+1/647+0.000738) = 401 /(*)


F =
2350518/(401*55.16)=106.3
=
(127-106)*100/106=19.8 %
6.
dP(2) 2.35[1]

:
w(2) =
4*G(2)*z/(pi*d*n*p(2))
w(2) =
4*37.49*4/(3.1416*0.021**2*404*996) = 1.1 /

2.31 [1] :
l =
0.25/[lg[e/3.7+(6.81/Re(2))
0.9]]
l =
0.25/sqr(lg(0.002/3.7+(6.81/27445)**0.9))=0.0286

( 2.6 [1])
w(2) =
4*G(2)/(pi*d*p(2))
w(2) =
4*37.49/(3.1416*0.25**2*996)=0.767 /


dP(2) =
l*L*z/d*p*w(2)/2+[2.5(z-1)+2z]*p*w(2)/2+3*p*w(2)/2
dP(2) =
0.0286*4*4/0.021*996*1.1**2/2+(2.5*3+6)*996*1.1**2/2+
+3*996*0.767**2/2=22144
Ŀ



Ĵ


Ĵ


D
800


d 252


z 4


n
404


H 4

F
127
@6.3



-

G(2) = 2.77778 /

, 10 90 , -
:
p(2) = 770 /
3,
[3] 537,549
(2) = 1.41 *,
(2) = 0.021 /,
(2) = 3007 /*,
la(2) = 0.142 /(*)

-

= 2.755 /. r() = 2179
/,
t() = 130 .
-


= 935 /
3,
() =
0.212 * la() = 0.686 /(*).
1.

C(2)cp
= ((2)(t2n)+(2)(t2k))/2 = (2356+3658)/2 = 3007 /*,
Q =
G*(2)cp(t2k-t2n) = 2.777778*3007*(90.7-10) = 674070
2.

G(1) =
Q/r(1) = 674070/2179000 = 0.31 /
3.

dtcp =
((130-10)-(130-90))/ln((130-10)/(130-90)) = 72.82 C
4.
2.1 [1] = 330 /().
Fop =
Q/(K*dtcp) = 674070/(330*72.82) = 28

Re(2) = 15000 (n)

(z) d = 252 .
n/z =
4*G(2)/(pi*d*(2)*Re(2))
n/z =
4*2.77778/(3.1416*0.021*0.00141*15000) = 7.96
5.
. -

.
252
,
600 . F = 46 , L = 3 . z = 6, n = 196

,


, 2.25 [1]
a1 =
1.41*la(1)*(p(1)L/((1)*G(1))
1/3
a1 =
1.41*0.686*((935**2)*3/(0.000212*0.31))**(1/3)= 3305 /
Re(2) =
4*G(2)*z/(pi*d*(2)*n)
Re(2) =
4*2.77778*6/(3.1416*0.021*0.00141*196) = 3657

. 154[3]

,
t.
(
).
Pr =
2*(2)/la(2) = 3007*0.00141/0.142 = 29.9
Pr
0.43 = 4.31
2 =
la(2)/d*Nu = 0.142/0.021*43.1 = 291.4 /



(


) :
(/la)
= 0.004/17.5+1/5800 = 0.0004 */
=
1/(1/3305+1/291.4+0.0004) = 242 /(*)


F =
674070/(242*72.82) = 38.25
=
(46-38.25)*100/38.25 = 20.3 %
6.
. -

, = 0.067
(
)
7.
dP(2) 2.35[1]

:
w(2) =
4*G(2)*z/(pi*d*n*p(2))
w(2) =
4*2.77778*6/(3.1416*0.021**2*196*770) = 0.319 /

2.31 [1] :
l =
0.25/[lg[e/3.7+(6.81/Re(2))
0.9]]
l =
0.25/sqr(lg(0.002/3.7+(6.81/3657)**0.9)) = 0.0436

( 2.6 [1])
w(2) =
4*G(2)/(pi*d*p(2))
w(2) =
4*2.77778/(3.1416*0.1**2*770) = 0.46 /


2.35 [1]
dP(2) =
[1]l*L*z/d*p*w(2)
+ [1][2.5(z-1)+2z]*p*w(2)
+ [1]3*p*w(2)
2
2
2
dP(2) =
0.0436*3*6/0.021*770*0.319**2/2 + (2.5*5+12)*770*0.319**2/2+ +
3*770*0.46**2/2 = 1464+960+245 = 2669
Ŀ



Ĵ


Ĵ


D
600


D 100


d 252


z 6


n
196


H 3

F
46
@6.4
.




1.38889 / 83 20

:
(t = 51.5 C)
p(1) = 761 /
3,
(1) = 1.07 *,
(1) = 0.0202 /,
(1) = 3091 /*,
la(1) = 0.145 /(*)
Pr =
(1)*(1)/la(1) = 3091*0.00107/0.145 = 22.81

t(2) = 15 t(2) = 35.

t2 = 25 C
2 =
997 /
3,
2 =
4185 /(*),
la(2) =
0.609 /(),
(2) =
0.00088 *,
Pr =
2*(2)/la(2) = 4185*0.00088/0.609 = 6.05.
1.

Q =
G*(2)cp(t2k-t2n) = 1.388889*3091*(83-20) = 270463
2.

G(2) =
Q/(C(2)*dt) = 270463/(4185*(35-15)) = 3.23 /
3.

dtcp =
((83-35)-(20-15))/ln((83-35)/(20-15)) = 19 C
4.
. , -

,
,
, , , -

.


.

,

. ,

, .

Re(2) = 15000, -
,
(n) (z) -

d = 252 .
n/z =
4*G(2)/(pi*d*(2)*Re(2))
n/z =
4*3.23/(3.1416*0.021*0.00088*15000) = 15

2.1 [1] = 300 /(). :
Fop =
Q/(K*dtcp) = 270463/(300*19) = 47.5
5.
.


. 252 ,

600 . F = 61 , L = 4.0 . -

196 . 6.
Re(2) =
4*G(2)*z/(pi*d*(2)*n)
Re(2) =
4*3.23*6/(3.1416*0.021*0.00088*196)=6812.5


. 154[3]

,
t.
(
).
Pr =
6.05 Pr
0.43 = 2.17
2 =
la(2)/d*Nu = 0.609/0.021*51=1479 /
Re(1) =
wdp/ = G/s*d/ = 1.38888/0.045*0.025/0.00107=721

2.16 [1] , -

[Pr/Pr()]
0.25 = 1.
a1 =
la(1)/d*0.24*Re
0.6*Pr
0.4
a1 =
0.145/0.025*0.24*721**0.6*22.81**0.4=252 /()



2.2 [1] :
(/la)
= 0.002/17.5+1/5800+1/1860=0.000824 */


=
1/(1/252+1/1479+0.000824)=183 /(*)


F =
270463/(183*19)=77.8
=
(91-78)*100/78=16.7 %
6.


:
w(2) =
4*G(2)*z/(pi*dp(2)*n)
w(2) =
4*3.23*6/(3.1416*0.021**2*997*196)=0.286 /
w(1) =
4*G(1)/(1)/s
w(1) =
4*1.38888/(761*0.045)=0.162 /

2.31 [1] :
l =
0.25/[lg[e/3.7+(6.81/Re(2))
0.9]]
l =
0.25/sqr(lg(0.002/3.7+(6.81/6813)**0.9))=0.0371

( 2.6 [1])
w(2) =
4*G(2)/(pi*d*p(2))
w(2) =
4*3.23/(3.1416*0.1**2*997)=0.412 /


dP(2) =
l*L*z/d*p*w(2)/2+[2.5(z-1)+2z]*p*w(2)/2+3*p*w(2)/2
dP(2) =
0.0413*6*6/0.021*997*0.286**2/2+(2.5*5+12)*997*0.286**2/2+
+3*997*0.412**2/2=4140
Ŀ



Ĵ


Ĵ


D
600


D 100


d 252


z 6


n
196


H 6

F
91
@6.5
.




1.38889 / 106
20


: (t = 63 C)
p(1) = 774 /
3,
(1) = 1.45 *,
(1) = 0.0212 /,
(1) = 2933 /*,
la(1) = 0.135 /(*)
Pr(1) = (1)*(1)/la(1) =
2933*0.0024/0.135 = 52.14

t(2) = 15 t(2) = 35.

t2 = 25 C
2 =
997 /
3,
2 =
4185 /(*),
la(2) =
0.609 /(),
(2) =
0.00088 *,
Pr =
2*(2)/la(2) = 4185*0.00088/0.609 = 6.05.
1.

Q =
G*(2)cp(t2k-t2n) = 1.388889*2933*(106-20) = 350330
2.

G(2) =
Q/(C(2)*dt) = 350330/(4185*(35-15)) = 4.186 /
3.

dtcp =
((106-35)-(20-15))/ln((106-35)/(20-15)) = 24.88 C
4.
.

Re(1) = 15000, -
,
(n) (z) -

d = 252 .
n/z =
4*G(1)/(pi*d*(1)*Re(1))
n/z =
4*4.186/(3.1416*0.021*0.00088*15000)=19

2.1 [1] = 300 /(). :
Fop =
Q/(K*dtcp) = 350330/(300*24.9) = 47
5.
.


. 252 ,

600 . F = 61 , L = 4.0 . -

196 . 6.
Re(2) =
4*G(2)*z/(pi*d*(2)*n)
Re(2) =
4*4.186*6/(3.1416*0.021*0.00088*196)=8829


. 154[3]

,
t.
(
).
Pr = 6.05 Pr
0.43 = 2.17
2 =
la(2)/d*Nu = 0.609/0.021*65.1=1888 /
Re(1) =
wdp/ = G/s*d/ = 1.38888/0.045*0.025/0.00145=532

2.16 [1] , -

[Pr/Pr()]
0.25 = 1.
a1 =
la(1)/d*0.24*Re
0.6*Pr
0.4
a1 =
0.135/0.025*0.24*532**0.6*22.81**0.4=196 /()



2.2 [1] :
(/la)
= 0.002/17.5+1/5800+1/1860=0.000824 */


=
1/(1/196+1/1888+0.000824)=155 /(*)


F =
270463/(155*24.9)=70
=
(91-70)*100/70=30 %
6.


:
w(2) =
4*G(2)*z/(pi*dp(2)*n)
w(2) =
4*4.186*6/(3.1416*0.021**2*997*196)=0.371 /
w(1) =
4*G(1)/(1)/s
w(1) =
4*1.38888/(774*0.045)=0.160 /

2.31 [1] :
l(2) =
0.25/[lg[e/3.7+(6.81/Re(2))
0.9]]
l(2) =
0.25/sqr(lg(0.002/3.7+(6.81/8829)**0.9))=0.035

( 2.6 [1])
w(2) =
4*G(2)/(pi*d*p(2))
w(2) =
4*4.186/(3.1416*0.1**2*997)=0.535 /


dP(2) =
l*L*z/d*p*w(2)/2+[2.5(z-1)+2z]*p*w(2)/2+3*p*w(2)/2
dP(2) =
0.035*6*6/0.021*997*0.371**2/2+(2.5*5+12)*997*0.371**2/2+
+3*997*0.535**2/2=6226
Ŀ



Ĵ


Ĵ


D
600


D 100


d 252


z 6


n
196


H 6

F
91
@6.6


, -

108 . - . -

35 .

to = 20 C


-

4.71 [3]
1 =
9.74+0.07*dt = 9.74+0.07*(35-20) = 10.8 /()

q =
a1(t-to) = 10.8*(35-20) = 162 /

, -

, : q = K(t-to) = la/*(t-to)

(la = 0.098 )
=
la/q*(t-to) = 0.098/162*(108-20) = 0.054


, -

. B7
. @7.1

-

I -

-

-

-

W -

-

-

-

-

s -
-
[/]
Ŀ


[] [] 10
-6 1/K
Ĵ

031810 110
200000 124.2 16.6


35 100
200000 207.0 13.1


3 100
199000 134.0 11.9



, ,
-


10
50 % fi = 0.9. @7.2
.

,

, :
(
)
s =>
p*D/(2**fi-p)+c
p
= p(x)*g*h = 820*10*8.6=70520 -
.

= * = 0.1 /*10 = 1
s =>
70520*1800/(2*124200000*0.9-70520)+1=1.568

. [4]

= 10 @7.3
.

:
s =>
p*D/(2**fi-0.5*p)+c
s =>
70520*1800/(2*124200000*0.9-0.5*70520)+1=1.568

, -
-
.

= 10

= 10

, , -

1930 .

= *3.14*D*h/4 = 7800*1.93**2*3.1416*0.01/4 = 228 .

3 20
Ŀ



Ĵ
D
[] D [] D [] h []
s [] d [] z []
Ĵ

1930 1890 1848 40 10 23 64

Ŀ
s = 10

Ĵ
D
[] h
h

V*0.001 3

Ĵ
1800
3.74 866 2196 40
450

h -
h -
@7.4 ,
.
<= 2.5
t <
300 C
.

. -


-
:
m = 2.5


q = 10

[q] = 40 [1]7.4.0
- .
1.
: 483-1810

- 2.7778 /

- 794 /
3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*2.77778/(3.1416*794*3)) = 0.0387 38.7
Dmax =
sqrt(4*2.77778/(3.1416*794*1.5)) = 0.0548 54.8
D = 42



s =>
*D/(2**fi-0.5*)+c

= p(x)*g*h+(/)+w/2 =
794*10*5+2700+794*2.4747**2/2=44831
w
= 4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*d) =
4*2.7778/(3.1416*794*0.042**2)=2.4747 /
s =>
44831*42/(2*124200000*0.9-44831)+1 = 1
2.
:
d
Dy
= 50
Ĵ
<D
-
D =
140

-
D =
110
h //// //////
-
D
= 59
//// //////

z = 4
\///______
.
h =
10
ho ij \ 1255-67
ho
= 3

<D
d =
14
<D
()

50-2.5
3.
. D = 40

,


,

. [1]7.4.1
-
1.
. 483-1810

- 2.7778 /

- 738 /
3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*2.77778/(3.1416*738*3.0))=0.04
Dmax =
sqrt(4*2.77778/(3.1416*738*1.5))=0.0566
2.
. 50-2.5
3.
. D = 40 [1]7.4.2
-
1.
.
1084-1810

- P(R+1)*M(w)/M(p) = 1.3889*2.558*73.28/60.67 = 4.291 /

- 737 /
3

- 0.5 - 1 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*4.291/(3.1416*737*1.0)) = 0.086
Dmax =
sqrt(4*4.291/(3.1416*737*0.5)) = 0.122
2.
. 100-2.5
3.
. D = 100 [1]7.4.3
-
1.
. 383-1810

- 1.3889 /

- 737 /
3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*737*3)) = 0.0283
Dmax =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*737*1.5))= 0.04
2.
. 40-2.5
3.
. D = 32 [1]7.4.4
-
1.
.
27310-1810

- 3.55278 /

- 2.07 /
3

- 20 - 40 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*3.55278/(3.1416*2.07*40))=0.234
Dmax =
sqrt(4*3.55278/(3.1416*2.07*20))=0.331
3.
. D = 250 [1]7.4.5
-
1.
.
325X10-1810

- 4.291 /

- 2.348 /
3

- 20 - 40 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*4.291/(3.1416*2.35*40))=0.241
Dmax =
sqrt(4*4.291/(3.1416*2.35*20))=0.341
3.
. D = 300 [1]7.4.6
-
1.
. 804-1810

- P*R = 1.388889*1.558 = 2.164 /

- 733.6 /
3

- 0.5-1 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*2.164/(3.1416*733.6*1.0))=0.061
Dmax =
sqrt(4*2.164/(3.1416*733.6*0.5))=0.087
3.
. D = 70 [1]7.4.7
-
1.
. 804-1810

- 1.38889 /

- 733.6 /
3

- 0.5-1 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*733.6*1.0))=0.061
Dmax =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*733.6*0.5))=0.087
3.
. D = 70 [1]7.4.6
-
1.
. 383-1810

- 1.38889 /

- 761 /
3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*761*3.0))=0.028
Dmax =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*761*1.5))=0.039
3.
. D = 32 [1]7.4.8
-
1.
. 383-1810

- 1.38889 /

- 774 /
3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*774*3.0))=0.028
Dmax =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*774*1.5))=0.039
3.
. D = 32 [1]7.4.8
-
1.
. 27310-3

- 1.41 /

- 1.494 /
3

- 15 - 25 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*1.41/(3.1416*1.494*25))=0.219
Dmax =
sqrt(4*1.41/(3.1416*1.494*15))=0.283
3.
. D = 250 [1]7.4.9
-
1.
. 1334-3

- 0.31 /

- 1.494 /
3

- 15 - 25 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*0.31/(3.1416*1.494*25))=0.103
Dmax =
sqrt(4*0.31/(3.1416*1.494*15))=0.133
3.
. D = 150 [1]7.4.10
-
1.
. 572.5-3

- 1.41 /

- 997 /
3

- 0.5 - 1 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*1.41/(3.1416*997*1.0))=0.043
Dmax =
sqrt(4*1.41/(3.1416*997*0.5))=0.060
3.
. D = 50 [1]7.4.11
-
1.
. 252-3

- 0.31 /

- 997 /
3

- 0.5 - 1 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*0.31/(3.1416*997*1.0))=0.020
Dmax =
sqrt(4*0.31/(3.1416*997*0.5))=0.028
3.
. D = 20 [1]7.4.12
- -
1.
.
1594.5-3

- 37.5 /

- 997 /
3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*37.5/(3.1416*997*3.0))=0.126
Dmax =
sqrt(4*37.5/(3.1416*997*1.5))=0.179
3.
. D = 150 [1]7.4.13
- -
1.
. 573.5-3

- 4.2 /

- 997 /
3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*4.2/(3.1416*997*3.0))=0.042
Dmax =
sqrt(4*4.2/(3.1416*997*1.5))=0.060
3.
. D = 50 [1]7.4.14
-
1.
. 483-1810

- 1.38889 /

- 786 802 /
3

- 0.8 - 2 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*786*2.0))=0.033
Dmax =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*786*0.8))=0.053
Dmin =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*802*2.0))=0.033
Dmax =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*802*0.8))=0.053
3.
. D = 40 [1]7.4.15
-
1.
. 483-1810

- 1.38889 /

- 786 802 /
3

- 1 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)
0.5
Dmin =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*786*3.0))=0.027
Dmax =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*786*1.0))=0.047
Dmin =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*802*3.0))=0.027
Dmax =
sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*802*1.0))=0.047
3.
. D = 40 @7.5 . [1]7.5.1
1 -


--

2.77778 /, 794 /
3
,
.

6 . - 5 .

27 . (). -

90.

,
90.
1.
42 .
w =
4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*d = 4*2.77778/(3.1416*794*0.042**2)=2.525 /
2.

Re =
4*G/(pi*d*) = 4*2.77778/(3.1416*0.042*0.00141) = 59723

= 0.0002 . :
e = /d
= 0.0002/0.042 = 0.00476
1/e =
210 560/e = 117600 10/e = 2100 2100 < Re < 117600

la

1.6 [1]
la =
0.11(e+68/Re)
0.25 = 0.11*(0.0002+68/59723)**0.25 = 0.021


)
.(1) = 0.5
)
.(2) = 0.83 D = 0.042
)
.(3) = 0.9


)
.(1) = 0.9 )
.(2) = 4.9
)
dP = 2700
) .(2) = 1
dP = p*w*(la*L/d+.)/2 =
. =
0.5+0.83+5*0.9+2*4.9+1=16.63
dP =
794*2.525**2*(0.021*32/0.042+16.63)/2+2700=85290

= p*g*h + dP = 794*9.81*6+85290=132025
H
= P/pg = 132025/1000/9.81=13.46 .
Q
= G/p = 2.77778/794=0.0035 3/

1 1.1 [1]
Ŀ

Q
3/ n 1/c

Ĵ

N
Ĵ
20/180.0055 13.8 48.3 0.6 2-31-2
3 0.83
[1]7.5.2
2 -




1.388889 /, 774 /
3
-
,

.


6 . - 2 .

10 . (). ,

90.
1.
32 .
w =
4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*d = 4*1.388889/(3.1416*774*0.032**2)=2.231 /
2.

Re =
4*G/(pi*d*) = 4*1.388889/(3.1416*0.032*0.00145) = 38112

= 0.0002 . :
e = /d
= 0.0002/0.042 = 0.00476
1/e =
210 560/e = 117600 10/e = 2100 2100 < Re < 117600

la

1.6 [1]
la =
0.11(e+68/Re)
0.25 = 0.11*(0.0002+68/38112)**0.25 = 0.0232


)
.(1) = 0.5


)
.(1) = 0.9
)
. dP(/) = 5000
)
.(2) = 4.9
)
.(2) = 1
. =
0.5+4*0.9+4.9+1=10
dP = p*w*(la*L/d+.)/2+dP(/)
dP =
774*2.231**2*(0.0232*12/0.032+10)/2+5000 = 41020

= p*g*h + dP = 774*9.81*6+41020 = 86578
H
= P/pg = 86578/1000/9.81 = 8.83 .
Q
= G/p = 1.388889/774
= 0.0018
3/

1 1.1 [1]
Ŀ

Q
3/ n 1/c

Ĵ

N
Ĵ
8/18
0.0024 11.3 48.3 0.4 2-31-2 3

@7.6 .
ķ -


- . ><s


Q = ,


-


-
> <l


, -

h
. Qin

-
. < D
> M - . q()

-
- _
_

=10 . k1=0.7 k2=2. /
\

q()=2 /
\ ()=240 ,()=146 , ()=380 , =2
D1=1890 , D2 = 1750 , < D2
>
h = 2 , l = 0.07 . < D1
>
s = 10 .
F = Q*g
= p(x)*g*h + g*(m()+m()+m()+m())
F =
70520+10*(297+14*176+7800*3.1416*(1.82**2-1.8**2)*7.6/4+228)
Qmax =
13400 Fmax = 134000
Qmin =
6341 Fmin = 63410 H
= [1]F*D
+ 4* <= ()
3.1416*Ds
=
(134000*1.82+4*50960)/(3.1416*1.82**2*0.01)=4305000 < 146000000
=
0.5*k1*k2*q()*h*D = 0.5*0.7*2*10000*2**2*1.82=50960 *
(max)
= [1] Fmax + [1]10**D1 =
619870 < 2*q() = 4
0.785*(D1-D2)
(D1
4-D2
4)
(min)
= [1] Fmin _ [1]10**D1 = -126345
0.785*(D1-D2)
(D1
4-D2
4)
(min)
< 0 - , .

M24:
=
0.785*(D1-D2)*(min)
=
0.785*126345*(1.89**2-1.75**2) = 50483
z =
1.2*/(k*F*()*n) = 1.2*50483/(1*0.000317*240000000*1)=0.796

-
,
, , -

90 . @7.7
@


2 - 8 .

:
V(max)
= G*t(max)/p
t(max) = V(max)*p/G
V(min)
= G*t(min)/p
t(min) = V(min)*p/G
G -


t -

, -
-
20
,
= 800 /
3
1. 1 -
.
V(max)
= 10000*8/800 = 100
3
V(min)
= 10000*2/800 = 25
3
2. 2
3 -
V(max)
= 5000*8/800 = 50.0
3
V(min)
= 5000*2/800 = 12.5
3
[4]


,


( ). -

1810.
Ŀ
[
3]


Ĵ

[] [] []
[]
Ĵ
1 80.00
74.37
3000 5 11555 5.95

2 40.00
39.67
2600 5 8445
6.35
3 40.00
39.67
2600 5 8445
6.35

1. 1 -
.
t =
800*74.37/10000 = 5.95
2. 2
3 -
t =
800*39.67/5000 = 6.35
-

. B8
-


--

10 /
1800
-
8.6
. -
.
-


,


(),



-
, -

.
:

-
.
-

.
,
-

,

.
-

,
,

.
,
-
:
,
35
, -

90-98 -
.
,


, , -

- .

1.

: /
.., .: - , 1991. - 496 .
2.
.., .., .., - , .: , 1968.
- 848 .
3.
.., .., .., , .:
, 1987. - 576 .
4. ..,
..,
, .-.
, 1963. - 470 .
5.
, , .




2.

3.

4.
q > 9100
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

      ©2010