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ABOUT MYSELF.
My
name is Natalia. My surname is Govorova. I am 15. I was born in 1982 in
Chelyabinsk. I live in a small town of Usinsk in the Komi Republic. My address
is Flat 116, 19, Pionerskaya Street. My phone number is 41-5-81. I am a pupil.
I go to school Numbers 1. I am a good pupil. I do well in all subjects. They
say, that I am a hardworking person. To tell the truth, all school subjects
come easy for me but sometimes. I have to sit much, for example, to do lessons
in Physics or Chemistry, to write a composition or to learn a poem by heart.
But my favourite subject is English. I spend much time on it reading books,
doing tests etc. May be, English and learning it will be a part of my future carreer. I like reading. I think
comics and detective stories are much easier to read but I prefer to read novels - historical or up-to-date. I
like music. My musical tastes are different, but it depends on my mood. But I
think every apple is good in its season. I play the piano and the guitar, not
seriously, but for my soul. Sometimes I like to listen to the Russian
classical music. My favourite composers
are Chaikovsky and Mozart. I dont like rock music, but I like Queen and
Beatles. Also I like Russian folk
songs. I have not much time to watch IV but sometimes I spend an hour or two
watching an interesting film or a news programme. In the evening I often read
newspapers (our local ones) or magazines. I like fresh air and exercise. Im
sorry I have not much time for doing sports. But some aerobics in the morning,
a swimming-pool twice a week, a ski-walk on a frosty day are of great help.
Sports is fun.
I have a wide circle of interests. Im very
sociable, so I get a way with people. I have many friends, most of them are my
class-mates. We spend much time together, going out to the cinema or to the
disco party, speaking about lessons and music, discussing our problems. But
most of all I like my family. We all are great friends and deeply attached to
each other.
You see, its me - a person with his good
and not good characteristics, liking this and hating that. But its interesting
for me to live, to open new things.
BOOKS
IN MY LIFE
A book is one of the greatest wonders of
world. Why are so many people fond of reading? The world of books is full of
wonders. Together with the characters of books you can find yourself in different and countries, have a lot of
adventures. The book is a faithful friend. They form our values and characters.
We try to look like the characters of your
favourite books: to be brave, honest, not to be silly and greedy, to be
real friends. We enjoyed the beauty and wisdom of fairy-tales and fables when
we were babies and Granny read them. They taught us to be kind, clever,
hardworking, to understand other people and help them. They teach us to
understand the beauty of nature, take care of it, to love our homeland.
Books have been with us since childhood. Who
hasnt read Alice in the wonderland, Mowgli? Who hasnt travelled with Marry
Poppins to her imaginary world?
Who hasnt imagined himself to be Robinson Crusoe on the deserted
island?
I have read a lot of interesting books, but
my favourite book is The adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain. This
well-known book is popular with the children all over the world.
The main character of the book is Tom
Sawyer, who lived in a small town on the Mississippi River. He was a boy with a wild imagination. He and his friends
often dreamed of different adventures. Tom was naughty, kind and brave. Besides
he was noble. I like this boy because he teaches us to be true friends.
If you are not fond of reading, take a
book to your liking or borrow it from the library and read it. Books are worth
reading. Readly, they are our good friends.


THE PRIDE OF THE NATION.
(Famous
People of Russia).
Much was done by people to reach the
present state of human development. It is necessary to say that great
contribution to the development of the world science and culture, literature,
music and painting was made by the Russian people. The names of Russian
scientists and writers, poets, composers and painters are world-famous-Pushkin,
Lermontov, Chehov, Levitan. This chain can be endless. It is almost impossible
to name a branch of science in the development of which the Russian scientists
havent played the greatest role. Lomonosov, the founder of the Moscow
University was an outstanding innovator both in the humanities and sciences.
Mendeleevs greatest discovery was the Periodic System of Elements. Popov
invented radio. Sechenov and Pavlov were the worlds greatest physiologists.
Russia is rightly called the mother of aviation and cosmounatics. Names of
Tsiolkovsky, Korolov and Gagarin are symbols of new space era.
People in many countries admire paintings,
portraits and landscapes Surikov, Levitan, Repin works of our Russian writes
and poets are translated into many languages.
I want to tell about one of the greatest
Russians. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, an outstanding Russian composer, was born
in Votkinsk in 1840. He was fond of music since his early childhood. His mother
sang him beautiful songs and taught him to play the piano. He graduated from
the Petersburg Conservatoire only in 1866 because of his poor living
conditions. He was the best pupil of Anton Rubinstein. Wen the Moscow
Conservatoire was founded Pyotr Ilyich became a professor there.
He created wonderful music: 10 operas, 3
ballets, 6 symphonies, 7 large symphonic poems and many other musical pieces.
Eugene Onegin, a new type of opera, was a
great success all over the world His Swan Lake, The Nutckracker, The
Sleeping Beauty are musical masterpieces. In his music he used folk melodies
for the musical descriptions of Russian nature and life. His compositions are
full of realist.
THERE IS NO BAD WEATHER,
THERE ARE BAD CLOTHES.
Englishmen say There is no bad weather,
there are bad clothes, It means that they like all the seasons, all kinds of
weather. Every season is good in its own way. Each person likes this or that
season. It depends on his character, mood. They say that Pushkin liked autumn
very much. This season is full of colours, bright and tasty. The sky is blue,
but sometimes grey clouds appear. The sun shines but it begins to hide behind
the clouds. Its rays are not so warm.
Autumn is full of vegetables and fruit, mushrooms and berries. There is nothing
like Indian summer in autumn. As for
me, I like to walk on the carpet of
bright leaves listen to the last songs of birds flying to warm countries, look
at the nature. It is like a fairy-tale. It fades away and nothing can be done.
Soon drizzling rains will begin and everything will be dull and sad. But still
I like autumn.
Winter in Usinsk is long and severe with dark nights, bitter wings and hard
frosts. Even sometimes you can see a quiet winter frosty day. It is snowing.
Fluffy soft snowflakes are falling to the ground making a beautiful thick
carpet. The icecles glitter in the sun the snow sparkles like diamond. Going outdoors
in such weather is pleasant. Many people go to the forests and enjoy
sledging and skiing, playing snowballs
and making a snowman.
As for spring, people in Usinsk long for it
and dream about it during long winter days. It comes late but suddenly. I dont
like it because my town becomes grey. But spring is the beginning of new life.
Nature awakens from its long winter sleep. The trees begin to bud and soon tiny
green leaves will appear. Young green grass appear, fruit trees begin to
blossom. Everything looks magic covered with green carpet. Nature looks full of
promise.
I like summer because we have holiday and
enjoy resting after school year.
In my opinion every season is beautiful and
attractive. As one famous poet said:I see no reason to speak in prize of any
season.
THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN
AND NOTHERN IRELAND.
THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE.
The UK of Creat Britain and Nothern
Ireland occupies the territory of the British Isles. It consists of 4 main
countries which are England, Scotland, Scotland,Wales and Nothern Ireland.
Their capitals are London, Cardiff and Belfast.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Nothern Ireland is the official name of the state which is sometimes referred
to as Great Britain or Britain (after it major island), England ( after its
major historic part or the British Isles.
The UK is an Island state it is composed
of some 5.500 islands, large and small. The two main islands are: Great Britain to the east and Ireland to the west.
They are separated by the Irish Sea.
The
area of the UK is 244,100 square kms. It is situated off to the northwest coast
of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the north and the North Sea on the east
and is separated from the European continent by the English Channel (or La
Manche) and the Straits of Dover (or Pas de Calais).
The population of the UK is over 57 mln
people. The UK is inhabited by the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish
who constitute the British nation. English is not the only language. Scottish,
Welsh and Irish are also used.
The flag of the UK is known as the Union
Jack. It has its history. It all began in 1603 when Scotland was joined to
England and Wales. The flag is made up of 3 crosses. The upright cross is the
Cross of St.Jeorge the patron saint of England. The white diagonal cross is the
cross of St.Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. The red diagonal cross is the
cross is the cross of St.Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. All of them are
on the blue background.
The national anthem is God Save the
Queen. The national currency is pound.
Geographically the island of Great Britain
is subdivided into 2 main regions: Lowland Britain and Highland Britain.
Lowland Britain comprises southern and eastern England. Highland Britain consists of Scotland, most
of Wales, the Pennines (or the Pennine Chain) and the Lake District.
The highest mountain top is Ben Nevis in
Scotland. The chief rivers of Great Britain are: the Severn, separating England
and Wales, the Thames (the longest and the deepest one). The swiflest flowing
river is the Spray. Also the Tweed is famous (the woolen fabric is made here).
There are many lakes in Great Britain. The
Lake District is the most beautiful.
The largest are London, Birmingham,
Glasgow, Liverpool, Bristol, Leeds, Cardiff.
The capitals are: London in England,
Edinburgh in Scotland, Cardiff in Wales and Belfast in Northern Ireland.
Every country has its own national emblem.
The red rose is the national emblem of England the thistle is the national
emblem of Scotland the daffodils and the leek are the emblems of Wales and the
shamrock (a kind of clover) is the emblem of Ireland.
TRADITIONS
AND CUSTOMS

Almost every nation has a reputation of
some kind. The English are reputed to be cold, reserved, rather haughty people.
They are steady, easy-going and fond of sports. There are certain kinds of behavior, manners and
customs which are peculiar to England.
The English are naturally polite and are
never tired of saying Thank you and I am sorry . They are generally
disciplined, you never hear loud talk in the street. They dont rush for seats
in buses and trains, but they take their seats in queues at bus stops. English
people do not shake hands when meeting one another, they do not show their
emotions even in tragic situations. They seem to remain good-tempered and
cheerful under difficulties.
The English are a nation of stay-at-homes.
There is no place like home. The Englishman says My house is my castle
because he doesnt wish his doings to be overlooked by his neighbours. It is
true that English people prefer small houses, built for one family. The fire is
the focus of the English Home. Other nations go out to cafes or cocktail bars.
The fireplace is the natural centre of
interest in the room. They like to sit round the fire and watch the dancing
flames, exchanging the days experience. In many houses you will still see
fireplaces, sometimes with columns on each side and a shelf above it on which
there is often a clock or a mirror or photos.
The
love of gardens is deep-rooted in the British people. Most mens conversations
are about gardens. It may be a discussion of the best methods of growing
cucumbers, a talk about the plot which differs from all the others.
The British like growing plants in a
window-box outside the kitchen or in the garden near the house. They love
flowers very much.
Britain is a nation of animal lovers. They
have about five million dogs, almost as many cats, 3 million parrots and other
cage birds, aquarium fish - and 1 million exotic pets such as reptiles. In
Britain they have special dog shops selling food, clothes and other things for
dogs. There are dog hair-dressing saloons and dog cemetries. In Britain pets
can send Christmas cards to their friends, birthday cards. Owners can buy for
their pets jewelled nylon collars, lambswool coat for a dog, lace-trimmed
panties, nightgowns, pyjamas, and so on. There are special animal hotels at the
airports. The English people believe that they are the only nation on the earth
that is really kind to its animals. How do they spend their week-ends.
Those who live in cities and towns like to
go out of town. They may go to stay in the country. Every Englishman is fond of
the countryside in a nice thatched cottage with roses round the porch and in
the garden, the fresh air and bright sun. No crowds of people, silence and
leisure.
Those who stay at home try to do all the
jobs they, were too busy to do during the week. Some go shopping on Saturday
mornings, some do the house - washing, cleaning. Some men do and watch sporting
events.
Saturday evening is the best time for
parties, dances, going to the cinema or theatre.
On Sunday after breakfast they may go to
work in the garden take a dog for a walk, play a visit to a pub. Sunday is a
day for inviting friends and relatives to afternoon tea.
There are some traditions concerning food.
English cooking is heavy, substantial and plain. The Englishman likes a good
breakfast. To him a good breakfast
means porridge with, fish, bacon and eggs, toast and marmalade, tea or
coffee. It is the same day to day. The English like their toast cold.
Tea is part of the prose of British life,
as necessary as potatoes and bread. Seven cups of it wake you up in the
morning, 9 cups will put you to sleep at night.
The midday meal is called lunch. This meal
consists on week- days of stew, fried fish, chops, liver or sausages,
vegetables. Rice and macaroni are seldom served. Then does an apple tart, or
hot milk pudding. Sunday dinner is a special occasion, it is a joint of beef or
lamb with vegetables. Then goes a large heavy pudding with custard. From 4 to 6
there is a very light meal called 5 oclock tea. It is a snack of thin bread
and butter and cups of tea with small cakes. This became a kind ritual. At this
time everything stops for tea.

Dinner (usually at 6 p.m.) is much like lunch and is in many families
the last meal of the day. Supper is a snack of bread and cheese and cocoa.
The English have a popular speciality
known as fish and chips. They are bought at special fish and chips shops.
HOLIDAYS IN
GREAT BRITAIN
Every country and every nation has own
traditions and customs. Its very important to know traditions and customs of
other countries. It helps to know more about the history and line of different
nations.
English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up
as I know all English people celebrate Christmas on the 25th of
December. Its the season of good will. Its the most beautiful time of the
year - the time of love, joy and hopes. Christmas Day is a family holiday. All
the people look forward to it, expecting something special. It is the time when
all the family gets together round the Christmas tree decorated with toys and
sweets. Little children believe that when they are asleep Santa Claus comes
with a big bag of toys. They often hang up large stockings for the presents.
All families have Christmas dinners. They eat traditional dishes - turkey,
duck, pudding. On the New Years Day they watch the old year out and the new
year in.
There are some traditions on New Years
Day. One of them is the old First
Footing. The first man to come into the house is very important. The Englishmen
believe that he brings luck. This man (not a woman) must be healthy, young,
pretty-looking. He brings presents - bread, a piece of coal or a coin. Another
best-loved holiday is St.Valentines Day on the 14th of February -
the holiday of love and affection, the day of sending valentines and giving
presents to those you love Be My Valentine - Englishmen with these word ask
to become friends or companion Valentines often are decorated with symbols of
love - red hearts and roses, ribbons and laces . In England tradition of
celebrating Easter is deep-rooted in the history of the nation . Easter is a
church holiday . There is a popular belief that wearing 3 new things on Easter
will bring good luck.
Traditionally
Easter parades of people in bright new spring clothes are held on this day.
Another custom is decorating eggs for children. Eggs are hidden in the yards
little children believe that the Easter rabbit comes and leaves eggs for them.
Easter candies
are maid in the form of eggs, little chickens and rabbits. Halloween is the day
or evening before all Saents Day. Children dress up in Halloween costumes and
masks over their faces. They go out into the streets to beg. People give them
sweets, cookies and apples. A favourite Halloween custom is to make a
jack-o-lantern (the children scrape our a pumpkin and cut the eyes, nose and
mouth). They light a candle inside the pumpkin to scare their friends. A few
words about superstitions in Britain. The people believe that if they put shoes
on the table, they will have bad luck. The English wont kill a spider,
especially money spiders (small red ones). This is very unlucky Some animals
are also lucky (black cats brihg good luck, white horses are also lucky. The
most unlucky thing is to break a mirror. This brings 7 years of bad luck. The
number 13 is the most unlucky number especially Combination Friday, the 13th.
According to the Act of Parliament of 1871
there are 4 bank holidays Easter Monday, whit-Monday, Des 26th -
Boxing Day. Obher pablic holiday are Good Friday, May Day, Also there is a
Pancake Day, Aprils Fool Day, Mothers Day.

TRAVELLING.
People are fond of traveling. They spend their holidays traveling.
They travel to see other countries and
continents, to learn a lot about peoples traditions, to enjoy picturesque
places. It is interesting for them to discover new things, different ways of
life, to meet different people, to try different food.
Those who live in the country like to find themselves in large
cities with their shops, cinemas, crowds of people. City-dwellers usually like
a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains with nothing to do but walking
and bathing, lazying in the sun. Most travelers and holiday makers take a
camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them -
beautiful views of waterfalls, forests, unusual plants and animals. These
photos will remind them of the happy time of holiday.
These are many ways of traveling - by train, by plain, by ship,
on foot. Everyone chooses his favourite one. My favourite way is traveling by
plain. And not because it is very
comfortable. It is exciting. I also like traveling by train. Ive traveled this
way a lot. When you are in the train you can see the beauty of nature.
I envy the tourists because I think that they study geography
traveling and visiting different parts of the world. They can tell you many
things which you didnt know before.
They are interesting people from whom you can learn much new for
yourself. Any kind of travel helps you to understand many things that you can
never see or learn at home. Though you may read about them in books and
newspapers.
As for me Id like to have a coach tour to some foreign country.
Coach tours are planned and Ill have a chance to do a lot of sightseeings and
have a good rest at the same time.
U.K. POLITICAL SYSTEM.
The
U.K of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a parliamentary democracy with a
constitutional monarch, Queen Elizabeth II as head of state. The organs of
government are : Parliament, the executive and the judiciary. The legislature,
Parliament, is the supreme authority. It comprises 2 chambers - the House of
Lords and House of Commons - together with the Queen in her constitutional
role.
The executive consists of the central
Government - that is the Prime-Minister and Cabinet and other ministers who are
responsible for iniating and directing
the national policy, government departments, local authorities, and public
corporations. The judiciary determines common I am and interpret status and is
independent of both the legislature and executive.
The Government derive its authority from
the elected House of Commons. A general election. For all seats in the House of
Commons, must be help every 5 years. The Government is normally formed by the
political party which is supported by the majority in the House of Commons. The
Partys leader is appointed Prime-Minister by the Queen. He chooses a team of
ministers of whom 20 or so are in the Cabinet. The second largest party becomes
the official opposition with its own leader and Shadow Cabinet. The House of
Commons comprises members from the constituencies in England, Scotland, Wales
and Northern Ireland who represent people whose history and traditions differ.
The House of Lords is a hereditory
Chamber.
YOUR PASTIME AND HOBBY.

Hobby is what a person likes to do in his
spare time. Hobbies differ like tastes. If you have chosen a hobby according to
your character and taste you are lucky because your life becomes more
interesting. The most popular hobby is doing things. It includes a wide variety
of activities from gardening to traveling, from chess to volleyball. Both
grown-ups and children are fond of
playing different computer games. This hobby is becoming more and more popular.
Making things include drawing, painting, handicrafts. Many people collect something - coins, stamps, compact discs,
toys, books. Some collections have some value. Rich people often collect paintings,
rare things and other art objects. Often such private collections are given to
museums, libraries.
As for me, I like to listen to music. 3
months ago my parents bought me a
compact disc player and
I decided to collect compact discs. I like different music, it should be
good. I collect discs of my favourite
groups and singers. I carefully study the information printed on discbooklets.
I try to find everything about my
favourite singers. Also I like to watch music programmes on TV. I
want to keep up with the news in the
world of music.
Of course, I like to spend my spare time
with my friends. We talk about all
sorts of things ( politics, teachers, girls). We discuss films, books, TV programmes. In fine weather we like to be in
the open air. We find a nice place
somewhere in the forest. We make a fire, bake potatoes and have a lot of fun. When the weather is bad, my friends
come to my place. We have a good time together.
KEEPIHG FIT
AND DOING SPORTS .
I you want to feel fit youd better go in for one kind of sport
or another. I should admit that everyone must do all he can to be healthy. Good
health is better than the best medicine. You have a sound mind in a sound
body as the old Latin saying goes. The English proverb Sickness in the body
brings sickness to the mind expresses
a similar idea but from different point of view. All kinds of physical
exercises are very useful to make our bodies strong and to keep ourselves fit
and healthy. To tell the truth I dont do sports regularly and it is not an
essential part of my daily life. In the morning I do some exercises just to
awake. Then some aerobics for myself. It puts me into the fine moods. In summer
I go swimming as there is a beautiful river with pure water where my Granny
lives. In winter, its rather long at our place, I should say, I prefer skiing
(There is nothing like the sight of a winter forest - a real fairy-tale). I
like to ride the bike and toboganning in winter. Mum says that Im to old to do
it, why not after all? I shouldnt call myself a sports fan. Of course , I like
to watch sports competitions on TV . Fortunately , they show different ones -
football , basketball . I like tennis tournaments very much . I think , its a
very intelligent kind of sport for clever thinking people . Also I admire
skiing championships , biathlon , swimming . But what I like most is basketball
. The best games are viewed on TV. I came to know that modern basketball appeared
in 1891 in the USA. The originator, John Naismith was a coach at the college.
He invented the baskets and the rules of the game. Since then basketball has be
become very popular and is spread all over the world. It is the sport of strong
tall men, the sport of giants.
Doing sports a man become strong, healthy and gay. He begins to
take care of his health.
Good health is better than wealth, you know. Its true, I
should say. In our school we have a nice gym. Sports and games are popular
among pupils. A lot of children train at special sport schools.
LEARNING FOREIGN
LANGUAGE.
The great German poet Goethe once said:
He who know no foreign language does not know
his own one. Learning foreign
languages is specially important nowadays. Some people learn foreign languages
because they need them in their work, others travel abroad, for the third
studying languages is a hobby.
Every year thousands of people from Russia
go to different countries as tourists
or to work. They can not go without knowing the language of the country they
are going to. A modern engineer or even a worker can not work with an imported
instrument or a machine if he is not able to read the instruction how to do it.
Ordinary people need language to translation the instruction or the manual to
the washing-machine or a vacuum-cleaner, medicine or even food-products.
Some
people are as a rule polyglots. Historians diplomats need some languages for
their work. If you want to be a
classified specialist you must learn English, the language of international communication.
English is one of the world languages. It is the language of progressive science and technology, trade
and cultural relations, commerce and business. It is the universal language of
international aviation, shipping and sports. It is also the major language of
diplomacy. Hundreds and hundreds of books, magazines and newspapers are printed in English, most of the worlds
mail and telephone calls are in English. Half of the worlds scientific
literature is written in English. English is spoken by more than 350 million people. Geographically, it is the most widespread language on earth, second after
Chinese. It is the official language of the UK, the USA , of Australia and New
Zealand, it is used as one of the official languages in Canada, the South
Africa. Millions of people study and use English as a foreign language. In our
country English is very popular. It is studied
at schools, colleges and universities.
Learning English is not an easy thing. It
is a long process and takes a lot of
time and patience. But to know English today is absolutely necessary for every
educated person. I want to know English
because its interesting for me to know foreign countries, their cultures and
tradition. English will be of great use in my future profession connected with
computers.

MOSCOW
The best way to see a strange city is to
buy a map and a guide-book. If you want to learn, more about a city, it is
useful to walk along the streets and look around to see historical places,
buildings and monuments. There is no doubt that you should visit art galleries
and museums.
Moscow, the capital of Russia, is one of
the largest cities in the world. It stands on the bank of the Moskva River.
About 10 million people live in the city. Moscow is famous for its historical
and architectural monuments that were built by outstanding architects and
sculptors: Kazakov, Bazhenov, Martos and others.
The best starting point of the tour around
the city is Red Square, the central and the most beautiful square in Moscow. It
is the place of parades, meeting and demonstrations. Here one can see the
Cathedral of St.Basil the Blessed, or St.Basils cathedral, erected by
architects Postnik and Barma to commemorate Russias conquest of the Kazan
Kingdom in 1552. It is a masterpiece of Russian architecture. Tourists can see
the monument to Minin and Pozharsky designed by Ivan Martos in 1818 in
memory
of the Russian victory over the Polish invaders, the History Museum. The heart
of Moscow is the Kremlin, a wonderful architectural ensemble with 3 magnificient
cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great palaces, fortress walls and 20
towers. The most famous of the towers is the Spasskaya Tower with a big clock.
The Kremlin with golden domes and tower makes a strong impression on tourists.
The Alexander Garden with the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is the place of
memory. Some Skyscrapers decorate Moscow Including Moscow University, a palace
of knowledge and students. Moscow is a scientific and cultural centre where
there are a lot of institutes, universities, libraries, museums. The city leads
a varied cultural life. It has a lot of cinemas, clubs, concert halls, more
than 40 drama and musical theatres, including the Bolshoi Theatre, the Art
Theatre. The Maly Theatre. The Vakhtangov Theatre.
Muscovites
are proud of their museums : the Tretyakov Gallery, Pushkin Museum of Fine
Arts, literary museums.
Crowds
of people visit the Tretiakov Gallery admiring beautiful pictures of Russian
painters.
Moscovites
are fond of going in for sports so, there are a lot of stadiums, swimming-pools,
courts and sports ground.
The
citizens of Moscow enjoy spending their weekends in parks and gardens - the
Park of Culture and Rest, Izmailovo, Sokolniki.
Moscovites
do their best to create the atmosphere of the old Moscow with its unique
monuments. Before the 850th anniversary of Moscow the Cathedral of
Christ the Savior was completed.
Moscow
is the place where things are happening in all spheres of life.
MY FRIEND

Frankly speaking, I have a lot of friends.
Most of them are my classmates. They say that I am a good mixer and always have
a way with people. But my bosom-friend is Olga. We are of the same age, we are
both 15. She is pleasant looking girt not very tall but pleasantly plump. They
say, she is the very image of her father, but, to my mind, she takes a lot
after her Mum in looks - fair curly hair and dark blue eyes. When she smiles, 2
pretty dimples appear on her cheeks. To my mind, she is really a beauty. But
her inner beauty is more important than physical one. Olga is well bred, jolly
and king, life and soul of every company. She is tactful, witty generous and
kind- hearted, careful and sensitive. She always ready to help other people.
She is well-read and fond of reading very much. She always has 2 or 3 books at
hand. Her second hobby is knitting and sewing. She is always elegunt and and
always wears whet suits her. She is good at cooking I think she is cut out for
a housewife.
Olga like all teenagers likes different
music which helps her to relax. In this point we have much in common. We both
go in for sports- acrobics I think, she is very gifted and capable.
She always manages to be cheerful,
energetic, full of life and energy. She is a sunny soul by nature, she never
feels sour.
As I have told, she is a helpful person
and every time she tries to do her best to help somebody when he has problems.
Olga is very attentive to her parents and
is simply mad about her dog. She cannot imagine her life without her.
Of course, Olga has some drawbacks -
sometimes she is a hurly-burly girl, a bit stubborn. But still like her as she
has a good sense of humour and pleasant to deal with.
We spend much time together - watch video
or listen to the music, walk or go to the cafe discussing all sorts of things.
If there is some misunderstanding between us we try to make peace soon. I
respect Olga for intellect and modesty. You know, I miss her very often. Our
friendship helps me feel strong and sure of myself.
MY HOME IS MY CASTLE.
I think, every person always dreams about the place where he can speak about his
problems, chat with close friends, where he can feel happy and quiet. For me it
is my family and my home. It is the best place in the world and my dearest
people live here.
My family is not large we are 4. I have a
father, a mother and a brother. We all live together in a new flat.
My father is 45. He is a tall and
well-built man with short black hair and grey eyes. He is quiet and hardworking
. Really, he is a bread maker of the family. Dad is handy with many things. His
hobby is fixing everything at home.
My mother is very lively. She is life and
soul of the family. She is a pleasant woman of forty with beautiful chestnut
hair and dark brown eyes. She is a lofty ideal for me. My parents have been
married for 20 years they have much in common, in everyday life Dad is
impractical and needs mother to look after him. Parents have different views on
music, books, films. For example, my father likes horror films and my father
likes soap operas. My father is a football fat and Mum doesnt like sports.
But they try to have the same opinion about the education and upbringing of
their children.
My brother is only 11. He goes to school.
He is funny and curious. He is constantly asking many questions often silly
ones. But this only a moment - I cant imagine my life without our little
monster.
We all feel happy when we are together. In
the evenings we often have little gatherings in the kitchen by the cup of tea,
chatting, laughing and discussing the events of the day. Those evening are the
best of all. But sometimes I have problems with my parents. They dont like the
clothes I wear the music I listen to
and the friends I bring home. Its not
easy to be a teenager. In summer I visit my Granny. I love her when I was a
child she used to tell me fairytales
and stories of her life.
My parents are hardworking. They combine
work with housekeeping. Mum manages our household very well. We all are in the
habit of helping her to run the house. They say Men make houses, women make
home. My home is a cosy place. Our relatives and friends like to come to our
place. My parents are very hospitable everybody feels at home in their flat.
Really There is no place like home.
OUR TOWN.
We live in Usinsk. Its a small town with the
population of about 60 thousand people situated near the river Usa in the
north-east of the Komi Republic. Usinsk is young it was founded in 1975. It is
a multinational town, the people of many nationalities live here - the
Russians, the Ukranians, the Tatars, the Komis, the Bashkirs and so on.
The
climate is severe, the winter is cold and long it lasts for 6-8 months, the
spring and the summer are short and cool.

Usinsk district is rich in oil, so they get oil here. There are many
industrial enterprises in it connected with oil extraction, they are
Komineft, Arkhangelsk Negtegaz and others. There are some joint - ventures
such as NobelOil, KomiArcticOil, KomiQuest and others where the
specialists from Canada, the USA, Great Britain, France work. In autumn 1994
our Usinsk became world - known as the town where the greatest ecological
catastrophy took place. The old oil pipeline was broken, a lot of oil and
products streamed on and in the ground, flew into the rivers and their
tributaries. The news has quickly spread in the world, many foreign
correspondents visited Usinsk in November 1994. Green Peace called this a
great ecological catastrophe but our Komi oil bosses called it only a local
incident without much consequences. The rescue operation I has been done to
clean the banks of the rivers and the nearest places covered (polluted) with
oil and oil products. The old broken pipeline was changed with the new one. I
think, its such an unpleasant event in the life of our town.
As
our town is young we have no theatres and museums, historical and memorial
places. But we have a cinema, the Palace of Technics a swimming-pool, a hockey
stadium, the House for Schoolchildren where there are a lot of different clubs,
studios for teenagers and a lot of pupils attend them.

There is also a musical and art school, seven schools, many
kindergartens. There is an airport and a railway station and our people can go
to Moscow, Syktyvkar, Ufa, Kazan by plane and by train.
Our
town is surrounded by forests, there are also small rivers and lakes. Our
people like to spend weekends in the forests picking mush-rooms and berries in
autumn, skiing in winter and in early spring. Our men and boys are fond of
fishing.
As
for me, I like my town, its so lovely.
RUSSIN TRADITIOS.
Almost
every nation and country has a reputation of some kind. The Englishmen are
reputed to be cold, reserved, rather naughty easy-going and fond of sport. They
are the nation of stay-at-homes. There is no place like home, they say. The
English mans home is his castle is a saying known all over the world. They
prefer a small house built for one family, with a small garden are a fire in
the centre of the house. They like animals very much and follow the traditions
concerning food and meals. We know much about English traditions and customs
but now Id like to say a few words about the traditions of my native
land-Russia. First, about Russian people. To my mind, the main traits of their
characters which differ them from other people are hospitality, their open
heart, golden hands, wise Russian fairytales reflect this wisdom. Our people
are hardworking, patient, never loosing hope for better life. The Russians are
the talented nation. Russia gave the world beautiful names of Pushkin and
Lermontov, Chaikovsky and Repin, thousands of names of world famous poets,
writers, composers, scientists. All of them are the pride of the nation because
they sand the beauty of our nature and people.
Besides these great names in literature
and music, our country is famous for Russian traditional specific crafts its
skilled craftsmen. Painted boxes of Palekh, coloured shawls of Pavlov Posad,
clay toys of Dymkovo, laces of Vologda are known all over the world.
The names of Gzhel and Khokhloma are
considered to be the symbols of Russia as well as matryoshkas and samovars. The
history of khokhloma goes back into the 17th century Producing of
tableware-dishes, spoons, mugs was begun at that time in the villages of
Suomino and Khokhloma in the Nizhniy Novgorod Province. On the banks of the
great Russian river Volga. Many carpenters, painters have been working since
then reviving traditions of old masters. The Khokhloma style is characterized
by using plant elements in painting the tableware. The prevailing colours are
black, yellow, golden, green and red. And nowadays this craft is sure to be
saved, it will be developed and brought into the future by the new generation
of painters.
The reviving of old crafts is connected
with the reviving of the traditional arts of all peoples inhabiting our big
country. There are 100 of them. They revive their culture, costumes, dances and
language. It is the revival of our souls. Now we celebrate the forgotten
holidays - Troisa, Maslenitsa, Easter. We again sing Russian folk songs and
chastushki, dance Barinya and perform khorovods, ride in troikas. Traditional
Russian cooking is world-famous for such dishes as okroshka, shi, pelment,
kurnik, kvass. We begin to build and reconstruct churches. The example of it is
the building of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow. It is the symbol
of reviving human feelings, national pride and patriotism.
THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN
AND NORTHERN IRELAND.
THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE.
The UK of Creat Britain and Northern
Ireland occupies the territory of the British Isles. It consists of 4 main
countries which are England, Scotland, Scotland,Wales and Northern Ireland.
Their capitals are London, Cardiff and Belfast.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland is the official name of the state which is sometimes referred to as
Great Britain or Britain (after it major island), England ( after its major
historic part or the British Isles.
The UK is an Island state it is composed
of some 5.500 islands, large and small. The two main islands are: Great Britain to the east and Ireland to the west.
They are separated by the Irish Sea.
The
area of the UK is 244,100 square kms. It is situated off to the northwest coast
of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the north and the North Sea on the east
and is separated from the European continent by the English Channel (or La
Manche) and the Straits of Dover (or Pas de Calais).
The population of the UK is over 57 mln
people. The UK is inhabited by the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish
who constitute the British nation. English is not the only language. Scottish,
Welsh and Irish are also used.
The flag of the UK is known as the Union
Jack. It has its history. It all began in 1603 when Scotland was joined to
England and Wales. The flag is made up of 3 crosses. The upright cross is the
Cross of St.George the patron saint of England. The white diagonal cross is the
cross of St.Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. The red diagonal cross is the
cross is the cross of St.Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. All of them are
on the blue background.
The national anthem is God Save the
Queen. The national currency is pound.
Geographically the island of Great Britain
is subdivided into 2 main regions: Lowland Britain and Highland Britain.
Lowland Britain comprises southern and eastern England. Highland Britain consists of Scotland, most
of Wales, the Pennines (or the Pennine Chain) and the Lake District.
The highest mountain top is Ben Nevis in
Scotland. The chief rivers of Great Britain are: the Severn, separating England
and Wales, the Thames (the longest and the deepest one). The swiftest flowing
river is the Spray. Also the Tweed is famous (the woolen fabric is made here).
There are many lakes in Great Britain. The
Lake District is the most beautiful.
The largest are London, Birmingham,
Glasgow, Liverpool, Bristol, Leeds, Cardiff.
The capitals are: London in England,
Edinburgh in Scotland, Cardiff in Wales and Belfast in Northern Ireland.
Every country has its own national emblem.
The red rose is the national emblem of England the thistle is the national
emblem of Scotland the daffodils and the leek are the emblems of Wales and the
shamrock (a kind of clover) is the emblem of Ireland.

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