the turbulent centures that followed the Norman invasion, several efforts
were made to establish universities in Ireland. In 1311, John de
Leah, Archbishop of Dublin, obtained a bull from Pope Clement V authorizing him
to establish a university in Dublin, but he died before anithing could be
accomplished. An attempt was made in 1465 to
found a university in Drogheda; this was to be endowed, as far as
the Prliament of the England Pale could do it, with all the rights and privileges
of the university of Oxford. The parliament
concerned was presided over by Tomas, Earl of Desmond; two ears later he
was attainted and beheaded, his estates were confiscated, and once more the
idea of a university came to nothing.At last,in 1591, the idea was realized.
that year a group of Dublin citixents obtained
a charter from Queen Elizabeth
I incorporating Trinity College as a mater universitatis. By this term
they envisaged that a group of
university colleges would sterm from
Trinity in the continental and English style;owing to the course of
Tudor and subsequent Irish history that ideal has not yet been realized.The
Corporation of Dublin granted to the new
foundation the lands and dilapidated buldings of the Monastery of All
Hallows,lying south-east of the sity walls
Subscriptions were raised from among the principal gentleman of
each country, who had been invited to
assist the new college to the benefit
of the whole country, whereby Knowlege, Learning and Civility may be increased,to
the banishment of barbarism,tumults and disorderly living from among them. A
number of landed estates were secured
to the College out of the confiscations which followed the defeat northen
university was designed to
encourage English culture in
Ireland,and to promote the reformed religion in it's statutory form,so that
it's establishment afforded no opportunities for higher education to recusant bodies, whether Catholic or Dissenting. The college
survived the storms of the Cromwellian and
Revolution periods, and settled down as the university of the colonial
ascendancy, taking it's tone
from the new Whig society,mainly mercantile and nouveau riche,which had
been put in power by the Williamite
victory. Yet even in the religious and political doldrums of the eghteenth
century, the true university and liberal spirit survived in Trinity,and it's alumni included Swift,Berkeley,
Bruke, Goldsmith, Grattan,and Wolf Tone. Towards the close of the century there was an awakening sense of independence and of
patriotism in what had been a colonial minority, with a
consequent relaxation of the penal code which had discriminated, in
religion and culture, against the native
Irish and the Anglo-Irish
majority; and after the passage of the Catholic Relief Act,1793, Trinity
abandoned the exclusive character it had hith erto borne.
1947, the College has received
substantial grants from the Irish State. Recent years have brought to
the University a great diversity of students, wuth many of the undergraduates
coming from Great Britan and from overseas.
University is represented by the Chancellor,Vice-Chancellor and Senate,whose
main function is to confer degrees.The College is governed by the Board of
Trinity College.The assent of the Board is required to all professional chairs and other academic
posts, and determines details of courses and examinations. The Povost of the
College is nominated by the Goverment from one of three names submitted by the
Board. Except in this last respect,the University and the College enjoy
complete autonomy. The College Library is Great Britan and Ireland.
Under the Queens College
(Ireland) Act,1845,Colleges were established by the Goverment at Cork, Galway
and Belfast,to provide higher education on a non-denominational basis.
Ufortunately, the character of these
Colleges were felt to be out of
accord with Catholic educational principles, and after a storm of public
controversy they were condemned by the Hierarchy.
1854,the Catholic University of Ireland was established by the Hierarchy, who invited John Henry Newman to be it's first Rector. Newman,
imbued with the liberal principles embodied in his celebrated Idea of a University, was not quite at home amid the
realities of Irish political and religious controversy, and his brave experiment
failed. As 'Newman's University' was not recognized by the State,it could not
confer degrees,neither did it have any public endowment. Coriously, it's best
success was in medicine, for the
College of Surgeons and the Apothecaries Hall recognized the courses of
study pursued by the Catholic University
Medical School students and admitted them to the College and Hall examinations, thus to
become registered medical practitioners.
Royal University was founded in 1879.
This was merely an examining body, set
up mainly for the purpose of enabling
the students of the Catholic University to obtain recognized degrees. In
1883,the Catholic University,henceforth to be called University
College,Dublin, was placed in the charge of the Society of Jesus, who
maintained it succesfully until the passing of the Irish Universities
Act,1908. This Act provided for the dissolution of the Royal University and of
Queens College, Belfast, and for the foundation in their stead of two new Universities,
one in Belfast which was to become
Queen's University, and the other, in Dublin,the National University of Ireland.
The two universities are self-governing institution ope-
rating under charter, autonomous as regards
policy and administration, and appointing their own academic and
administrative staffs.
National University of Ireland is a federal university, with a central office
in Dublin and three Constituent Colleges: University College Dublin, University
College Cork, University College Galway; and one Recognized College, St.
Patricks College, Maynooth. Maynooth is a seminary for the training of Catholic'clergy.
It was founded in 1795 and endowed by a
Goverment who, chastened by the
French Revolution, recognized
the conservative and conserving character of the Irish priesthood. In 1845 the
Maynooth College Board of Trustees was
incorporated by Statute, and in 1899 was invested by the Holy See with authority to confer degrees in
Philosophy, Theology, and Canon Law.
National University itself does not teach; the courses for degrees are
conducted by the Colleges which, in
practice, lay down their own programme and set their own
examinations. Courses are given in the various faculties,with certain exceptions,at
each of the Constituent Colleges; and in Arts, Philosophy and Sociology,
Celtic Sudents, and Science at
Maynooth. Courses in Dairy Science are
given only at University College Cork;courses in General Agriculture and
Veterinary Science are (outside of Trinity College) confined to University College Dublin.By the University Education
(Agriculture and Dairy Science) Act, 1926, the Royal College of Science and the
Albert Agricultural College
were Transferred to University College Dublin, which was empowered to
continue the functions formerly fulfilled by these institutions.
Trinity College, the National
University receives, through the Department of Education, financial
assistance from the State in the form of annual grants-in-aid, as well as non
recurrent grants for capital purposes. Each
of the Colleges is
a complete
organism,with it's own Governing Body and full con- trol of
it's own finances.
* * *
are twelve residental schools of Rural Domestic Economy,seven of which operate
under the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. The schools are privately
owned,but the State subsidized and subject to
inspection in the same way
as agricultural colleges.Students are admitted from the age of 15
upwards.The course runs from September until June.The syllabus comprises
theoretical and practical instrustion in the following subjects: -
Poultrykeeping, Dairing, Cookery, Housewifery, Dressmaking, Laundry, Arts and
Crafts, Phisiology, Higiene,
First Aid and Home Nursing, Horticulture and general subjects.
At the end of the
course, a standart examination compris-
ing written,oral and practical tests, is heid
and certificates are awarded to successful candidates.About 600 young women attend
these schools annually. Over 250
scholarships awarded by County Committes of Agriculture, each year, are tenable
at the schools. In addition, capitation
grants are payable for each
eligible pupil.Some pupils who complete the session at a rural domestic
economy school proceed to other
studies, for careers in Poultry Specialization, Farm Home Management, Domestic
Scients,Hotel Management,or Nursing.The course at the schools is, however, a
good training for all future housewives.
Munster Institute, Cork, under the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries,
conducts advanced courses for selected
pupils from rural domestic economy schools: -
1.A three year course in Farm Home
2.A three year course in Poultry
3.A one year
course in Poultry Husbundry.
Girls who complete the three
years courses are employed as instructors by the Country Committees
of Agroculture, or as teachers.
Girls who cmplete the year's course in
Poultry Husbundry are employed as technicians in the poultry industry.
Metropolitan School of Art began as an academy established in 1746
by the Royal Dublin Society, for the promotion of drawing and painting. During
the first hundred years of the School's existence,instruction was free of
charge;and the four departments of figure drawing,landscape and
ornament,architecture,and modeling,provided courses useful to sculptors, embroiderers,
weavers, printers, silversmith and workers in other crafts.In the ninteenth
century, the School was successively under the control of the Royal
Dublin Society, the Board of
trade, the Department of Science and Art,and the Department of Agroculture
and Technical Instruction for Ireland. Following it's transfer to the
last-named body, classes were established in the principal artistic crafts,
including metalwork and enemelling, mosaic, embroidery and
woodcarving. The School also aquired a high reputation for it's part in the development of stained glass and
for the felicitous influence which,under the guidance of Sir William Orpen, it exerted on painting in Ireland.
In 1924, control was assumed by the Department of Education; an extension and
development of the School, was established.
The National
College of Art is the principal institution of the sistem of Art Education in Ireland as administered by the Departmentt of Education. It's general purpose is to promote
the advancement of Art,to advocate and maintain the highest artistic values in
national culture, and to combine artistic design with practical skill in the interests of industry.
There are three schools; the School of Design, the School of
Painting and the School of Sculpture,with a Preliminary School,
which includes an Upper and a Lower
Division. In ths way, the College provides for the study of the Fine Arts and
of the Decorative Arts and Crafts, and for the training of Art teachers
eligible for employment in post-primary schools. The College has working
arrangements with University ColIege
Dublin and with the Bolton Street School of Technology. It olso
maintains liaison with the National Library,the National Museum, and the
National Gellery of Ireland.
Outside Dublin,whole-time
day course and part-time evening courses are provided ay the Crawford School of Art, Cork, and the Schools of Art
in Limerick and Waterford.
foster the study of the History of Art, Miss Sarah Purser and Sir John Purser
Griffith established,in 1934,two equal funds, one to be administered by Trinity
College,and the other by University
College Dublin, the income from
which provides Travelling Scoolarships.
and prizes to be competed for every
year, alrtenately in each University.
Extra-mural courses are given at University College Dublin,which College also
provides courses leading to a degree in the
History of European Painting taken
with another subject. Lectures are also provided, mainly
for post-primary students, in the National Gallery.
the Confessor died in January , 1066.On Christmas Day in the same year William
the Conqueror was crowned king in Westminster Abbey. It had been a terrible
year for Englishmen. From the very beginning of it they had feared that evil
things were going to happen, and when a comet began to flame in the sky , early
in the summer , their fears were increased. To all Englishmen it seemed to
foretell defeat. And defeat came upon them when Duke William landed at Pevensey
, in Sussex ,and advanced to Hastings. King Harold rushed to meet him , but he
and many of his faithful thanes were slain. The bravest of them gathered to
make a last desperate fight round the English standarts ,and when they fell the
days of English liberty were over for a long period.On the very spot where
Harold and his men made their last stand the Norman conqueror built Battle
Abbey to commemorate his victory. If you go there today, you will be shown the
place where Harold fell.
It was a hard time
for Englishmen. As William marched slowly by a round-
about way to London, his men plundered the
village so terribly that it took them many years to recover. His soldiers
searched everywhere for food and all the things that an army needs. Villagers,
flying in terror to the woods, saw their cattle driven off,their stored corn
and hay carted away,and their houses burnt. This was the way in which William
hoped to terrify Englishmen into submission. He was successful. On Christmas
Day,1066,he was crowned king of the English by the Archbishop of York in
Westminster Abbey.
he began to drive English nobles from their lands,for he said they had
treacherously fought against their true king. And in their places he put
Normans, who despised the English, and treated them cruelly. So in the year
1067,if you had been travelling about then, you would have seen parties of
Normans riding through the country-side to take possession of the lands that
William had given them in returm for their help at Hastings.These men , of
couse,had Norman names, and if you look at a map of England today, you will see
that some villages are still called by the names of the Norman lords to whom
William gave them, for example, Norton Mandeville in Essex.Some English-
men nowadays have Norman names, such as
Harcout, Montgomery, Mantague.For
a long time after the battle of Hastings no
one who wished to be considered a gentleman spoke English;even little boys at
school learnt their lessons in French, so that, when they grew up, they might
be able to keep company with the rulers of the land and pretend they were
us imagine that we are visiting a village when it is new master rides into
it.Our old English master, our thane, is dead, for he went off with his
soldiers when Harold called for his help against the foreigner, and fell beside
his king on the day of the battle of Hastings.All though the winter the
villagers have starved, for they have had little corn & meat to live
on,since William,s army went past on it is way to London.Their houses are in a
ruinous condition, And the very barns have gone, for some of them were burnt
& others pulled down to supply fuel for Norman camp fires.The old mill
wheel has not turned since the village was sacked, for even the dam, which
supplied the water, was hacked to bits by the soldiers.So when the new master
rides into the village, he sees lean sterving men, women and children.There are
fire-blackened ruins of English homes all around.Some small patches of growing
corn can
be seen, for even in starvation time men must
save some seed for the next crop. But the fields are small compared with what
they were.
How we hate this
new-comer!How we should like to take vengeance on him and
his men for all our sufferings, & for all
the fathers & brothers who will never return from Hastings!But we dare do
nothing, & say nothing.We can see that this man is no coward, for he rides
into the middle of us, & looks all straight in the face.Rising in his
stirrups, he calls in French : " I would have you know that King William
has given me these lands & that you are my tenants now. Do your part
faithfully, & I shall do mine.But if any man checks me in my just rights,
let him beware".No Englishman understands a word, but everybody suspects
what the speaker means well enough.
makes his way to the thane's house, & there he meets the window & her
daughter accompanied by the steward.He explains the lady that a small piece of
land out of her husband's estate will be left to her.She knows that she will
be very poor for the rest of her days, but
she is to proud to ask for anything more and withdraws in silence with her
Then the Norman turns to the
steward and calls for his accounts.He hopes
to see out all the old thane's rights carefully set there; how
he received so much hay every year from one man, so much corn from another, and
so much meat from a third; and how Aelfgar and men like him work once a week
for him all the year round and do extra work in harvest; and how Gurth and his
equals do not work for the thane, but pay so much food. When the accounts are
brought, he listens carefully as the stewards axplains each entry, for he
wishes to know exactly how much the land that the king has given him is worth.
The steward, of couse, says that the value has gone down very much in the last
A talk follows till far on into the night,
and many questions are put by
the master. How much land is there suitable for ploughing? How
much of it did the old thane keep for his own use? How many bushels of corn
come from each acre? Do the villagers know how to manure and drain the land
properly? Is there any grassland that could be made to grow extra supplies of
corn? "For," says lord, "my soldiers must have plenty to
eat". "Yes," says the
steward, "there is much land fit for the purpose.But do you propose to
make the villagers work on this and do their other work as well? Remember, Sir,
that there are fewer of them than there were". The Norman replies that he
intends his villagers to do not only this, but much more besides. Indeed he
goes so far as to say that the men like Gurth, who never worked but only paid
food, shall now both pay and work, for more land must be cultivated. And he
adds that he intends to increase the amounts of meat, hay, eggs, cheese, butter
and other things that the villagers pay. So the stewards returns home in a thoughtful and unhappy state, for he sees
hard times coming for his friends and does not like telling them about the extra
work that they will have to do. The Norman also goes to bed, but not until he
has gone round the house with his chief follower, and posted sentinels; for he
has no wish to be murdered in his sleep by his new servants, as has happened to
some of his friends.He and his followerds do not thing much of the old house.
The old English thanes did not make their houses strong for defence, for they
had nothing to fear from their villagers. But the Norman says:"We must
have a safer place than this to sleep in, or our throats wiil all be cut some
night".So the steward wiil hear if another piece of work for his friends
in the village to do.
In the morning the
Norman gets up early and goes on horseback round his
land accompanied by the steward who listens
to all his plans. He is told to have the mill dam repaired by next harvest, and
a new whell put in. Then the master looks round for a position for a new house.
He means to make it by throwing up a mound of earth and building a wooden tower
on top of it. It is to be surrounded by a wall of earth and a ditch. He marks
out the boundaries at once and orders the steward to have the digging
commenced. Next he goes to the woods to look for timber. After the inspection
he says:"Let me hear axes at work here when I come round tommorow".
As he rides home he sees the old village church. The roof lets the rain in, and
some of the timber of which
the building is made rotting away. He
indignantly says it's more like a brokendown stable than a house of God and
swears in the name of Saint Valerie who sent the Normans a fair wind for their
invasion, that he will build a stone church.
has not been long back at the hall before Gurth and his friends ask to see him.
When they are admitted to the hall, they say they have heard the word that is
going round, how every villagers, big and little, is to work on the new fields,
which the lord is going to fence in, and is to pay more food than ever before.
They say that this is against the custom of the village. They paid food to the
old thanes, because King Alfred ordered their forefathers to do so. But they
never laboured like serfs on any man's land. They are free men, and when they
have paid their dues, as King Alfred ordered, no man can ask them for more.
bold speech has a terrible result. The new lord rises from his seat. His eyes
are blazing with rage, and the villagers fear nothing less than death at the
hands of the surrounding soldiers. " Custom !" the master shouts,
"Custom! You talk to me about custom as though it ruled all. I and my
friends won this land by the sword from you and traitors like you, who were in
arms against your lawful King William. Traitors lie at the mercy of their
conquerors and must be punished for their treachery. Custom will not protect
you. Get you gone. Soldiers! Clear the hall".
many days there is rage in the hearts of the villagers, for the smaller men
like Aelfgar are ground to poverty by the new lord. Thus they feel the results
of the Norman Conquest. All English feel them as well, and for five
years to come there are angry rebellions in
different parts of the land.
University Education
There are 44 universities (not counting the
Open University) in Britain. Although the Goverment is responsible for
providing about 80 per cent of universities income it does not control their
work or teaching nor does it have direct dealings with the universities.The
grants are distributed by the Secretary of State for Education and Science.
The English universities are :
Aston (Birmingham), Bath, Birmingham, Bradford
Brunel (London), Cambridge, City (London), Durham, East Anglia ,Essex, Exeter,
Hull, Keele, Kent at Centerbury, Lancaster, Leeds, Leicester, Liverpool, London,
Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nottingham, Oxford, Reading, Saford,
Sheffield, Southhampton, Surrey, Sussex, Warwick and York. The federated University
of Wales includes five university colleges, the Welsh National School of
Medicine, and the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology.The
Scottish universities are : Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Belfast, Glasgow, Heriot-Watt
(Edinburgh), St. Andrews, Stirling, and Strathclyde (Glasgow).In Northen
Ireland there is Queen"s University, Belfast, and the New University of Ulster
in Coleraine.
The Universities of Oxford and
Cambridge date from the twelfth and thirteenth
and the Scottish Universities of St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh
from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. All the other universities were
founded in the nineteenth or twentieth centuries.
are five other institutions where the work is of university standard : the
University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology ; the two postgraduate
business school which are supported jointly by industry and the Goverment -
the Manchester Business School and the London Graduate School of Business
Studies, associated with the London School of Economics and the Imperial
College of Science and Technology ; Cranfield Inctitute of Technology for
mainly postgraduate work in aeronautics and other subjects ; and the Royal
College of Art.
My coming to Cambridge has been
an unusual experience. From whatever country
comes as a student one cannot escape the influence of the Cambridge traditions
- and they go back so far ! Here, perhaps, more than anywhere else, I have felt
at one and the same time the Past, the Present and even the Future. It"s
easy to see and the old grey stone buildings how the past has moulded the present
and how the present is giving shape to the future. So let me tell you a little
of what this University town looks like and how it came to be here at all.
The story of the University begins, so far as
I know, in 1209 when several
students and scholars arrived in the little town of Cambridge after having
walked 60 miles from Oxford. As was the custom then, they had joined themselves
into a "Universitas" of Society - the word "University",
like the word "College", meant originally a society of people with a
common employment ; it
only later it came to be associated with scholarship.
These students were all churchmen and had been
studying in Oxford at that city"s well-known schools. It was a hard life
at Oxford for there was constant trouble between the townsfolk and the
students. Then one day a student accidentally killed a man of the town. The
Mayor arrested three other students, who were innocent, and by order of King
John (who was quarrelling with the Church and knew that the death of three
clergymen would annoy it) they were put to death by hanging. In protest, all
the students moved elsewhere, some coming to Cambridge ; and so the new
University began.
Before long there were new quarrel with the
townsfolk, for the University was anxious to be independent of the Town, and
the Town was equally anxious for authority over the new student population.
"Town" and "Gown" battles were frequent.
The boarding-houses and shopkeepers cheated
the students, who very soon organized themselves under an elected leader
called a Chancellor, and he fixed prices that should be paid. Gradually the
University gained control.
Side by side with the fight for
freedom from Town rule was another for liberty
Church rule, until by 1500 the University was its own master at last.
Of course there were no Colleges
in those early days and student life was very
from what it is now. Students were of all ages and came from every where.
Those from the same part of the country tended to group together and
groups called "Nations" still exist, by the way, at some European
The students were armed ; some even banded
together to rob the people of the countryside. Gradually, the idea of the
College developed and in 1284 Peterhouse the oldest College in Cambridge, was
Life in College was strict ;
students were forbidden to play games, to sing
(except sacred music), to hunt or fish or
even to dance.
The Shirkov Parish.
To the north -
west of Tver among The Valdai Hills, which are covered with
confferous and deciduous forest, there is a
long chain offour lakes, formed from the river Volga: the Sterzh, Vseloog, Peno
and Volgo. These are the upper reaches of the great Russian River Volga. Until
the middle of the 19th centory the river was not abundant in water, but in 1843
a dam was built below the present Volgo lake which caused this formation of
lakes (The dam was recon structed in 1943).
The Upper Volga is
interesting not only for its picturesque suroundings but
also for its reach history. In early
prehistoric times - mainly during the Stone Age and the Broze Age - this area
was already populated by hunters and fishermen.
ancient Pinns were the first inhabitants of this territory for many centuries.
From the 9th century the Slav tribe, Lreeveech lived here, but from the 12th
century onwards the Novgorod Slav community was the main population . This land
has witnessed many important events of our history such as internal feuds
between Princes; Khan Batu"s invasion; and the long and stubborn struggle
against Lithuanian and Polish invaders. The oldest paths of trading ran across
this territory. The land knew periods of flourishing as well as periods of devastation.
Nowdays it is a picturesque region ideal for rest and tourism. Many old relicts
and monuments of various ages have been well preserved.
One of the most
beautiful spots of the Upper Volga is on the Vseloog lake .
In ancient times there were settlements and a
heathen temple here. Today one can see the Shirkov Parish. For three centuries
it has been standing in full harmony with the rivers, boundless fore4st and
vast skies. Nature and architecture in harmony.
The origin of the
name of grave - yard is unknown. The unique Shirkiov ar-
chitecture was created by nameless masters.
In an old contract, drawn up by the carpenter"s team, who were to build
the church, there was the following recommendation: " Build a temple as
large and beautiful as your senses command" These words show the character
of Russian wooden architecture at its best. The ability of our ancestors to
select the sites for their settlements and churches
is also well known.
wooden Ioan Predtechy church is the oldest monument in the Shirkon Pa - rish.
It is considered to be finest piece of national wooden architecture. The best
traditions of Russian carpenters are exemplified in this masterpiece. It is a
peasant"s spacimen of beauty born in daily work and in permanent contact
with the field, forest, rivers and village houses. Creatness and simplicity ,
power and elegance go together simultaneously.
The Ioan Predtechy
church is the most interesting wooden tier church of the
" tetrehedron on a tetrehedron"
style. As far back as 1887 it was noted that
" as for Russian architecture, the
exterior of the church is unusual and of great interest". This style of
church was popular in former times. Thus we known about the existance of
similar churches in the Nilowa Stolbenskaya her - mitage from the middle of the
17th centory.
to the certifecate compiled by the priest of Shirkov church Illynsky, in
respose to a census, offered by the Emperor of the Archaeological Comission of
the Academy of Arts in 1880s on the basis of the clerge register ( which
unfortunately has not been preserved), the church is dated from 1694.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .