К Э Циолковский на англ языке
Konstantin Eduardovitch Tsiolkovsky
1857-1935 School N 263 Form 10b Student Golikov A.
The life of
Konstantin Eduardovitch Tsiolkovsky
"The Earth is
the cradle of the mind, but we cannot live forever in a cradle".
Konstantin E Eduardovitch. Tsiolkovsky
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was a true visionary and
pioneer of astronautics. He theorized many aspects of human space travel and
rocket propulsion decades before others, and played an important role in the
development of the Soviet and Russian space programs.
He was born on September 17,1857, in the village of Ijevskoe,
Ryasan Province, Russia, the son a a Polish forester who had emigrated to
Russia. He was not from a rich family, but a very large one; Konstantin
Tsiolkovsky had 17 brothers and sisters. At the age of 10 he lost his hearing
as the result of scarlet fever. After that he couldn't attend school, and he
never recieved any formal education. The knowledge and education he attained
were acheived by himself. His books were his teachers, and he read every book
in his father's library. Tsiolkovsky later remembered that his hearing loss
influenced greatly his future life: during all his life he tried to prove to
himself and to others that he was better and more clever than others, even with
In 1873-1876 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky lived in Moscow.
During this time he visited the main Moscow libraries, among them the well
known Pashkov House Library. It was in this fashion that he received his
self-education. While in Moscow, Tsiolkovsky was tutored by the eccentric and
brilliant Russian philosopher Nikolai Fedorovitch Fedorov, who was working in a
Moscow library at the time. Fedorov was a leading proponent of Russian Cosmism,
and gave Tsiolkovsky a place to work in the library. In many ways, he took the
place of the university lecturers that Tsiolkovsky never had access to. At the
age of17, while living in Moscow, he first dreamed about the possibility of
space flight. He was, in part, inspired by the novels of Jules Verne. Since
that time he started to think about the problems of space vehicle design. His
great purpose was not simply to go into outer space, but to live in space, for
humainity to become a space civilization.
In 1876-1879, after his coming back to his father's
home, he lived in Vyatka and Ryasan. After passing his exams, he recieved his
Teacher's Certificate, and went to work as a math teacher in Borovsk, Kaluga
In 1880-1892 Tsiolkovsky
lived in Borovsk and worked as a teacher. At that time he began his scientific
research in air baloon building, life in free space, aerodynamics and
philosophy. It was also at that time that he married. His wife, Barbara E.
Sokolova, was the daughter of the local preacher. Together, they had 3
daughters and 4 sons.
In 1892-1935 he lived and worked in Kaluga. His
moving to Kaluga was the result of a teaching promotion. He lived in the house
that is now a part of the museum complex with his family from the year 1904
until his death in 1935. It was here in Kaluga that he became a well known
scientist, and where he wrote and published his theories of space flight and
inter-planetary travels. In Kaluga he wrote his Cosmic Philosophy, and he
dreamed about the far distant future of humanity, including the eventual
conquest of space and our leaving the cradle of the planet Earth for the stars.
He was made a member of the Soviet Academy of Science in 1919.
He received a government
pension in 1920, and continued to work and write about space. Upon the
publication of the works of German rocket pioneer Herman Oberth in 1923, his
works were revised and published more widely, and he finally earned some
international recognition for his ideas.
He wrote over 500 scientific papers, and, even though he
never created any rockets himself, he influenced many young Russian engineers
and designers. Tsiolkovsky lived to see a younger generation of Russian
engineers and scientists begin to make his visionary concepts reality. Among
these was Sergey Korolev, who would become the "Chief Designer" of
the Soviet space program, who launched humanity into space with Sputnik, Laika,
and the launch of the first cosmonaut,Yuri Gagarin.
Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, the father of
cosmonautics, died in Kaluga at the age of 78 on September 19,1935. He received
an honored State funeral from the Soviet government. He was buried in the old
The tomb of Tsiolkovsky in the Old Kaluga Cemetery.
The Work of
"Men are weak now, and yet they
transform the Earth's surface. In millions of years their might will increase
to the extent that they will change the surface of the Earth, its oceans, the
atmosphere, and themselves. They will control the climate and the Solar System
just as they control the Earth. They will travel beyond the limits of our
planetary system; they will reach other Suns, and use their fresh energy
instead of the energy of their dying luminary."-Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
Tsiolkovsky is considered to be the father of
cosmonautics and human space flight, and was a truly
great thinker. His visionary ideas about the future of humanity in space were
magnificent and far ahead of his time. He dreamed about space flight since he
was a very young boy. Tsiolkovsky was certain that the future of human life
will be in outer space, so he deceded that we must study the cosmos to pave the
way for future generations.
Later, he proved mathematically the
possibility of space flight, and wrote and published over 500 works about space
travel and related subjects. These included the design and construction of
space rockets, steerable rocket engines, multi-stage boosters, space stations,
life in space, and more. His notebooks are filled with sketches of
liquid-feuled rockets, detailed combustion chamber designs with steering vanes
in the exhaust plume for directional control, double walled pressurized cabins
to protect from meteorites, gyroscopes for attitude control, reclining seats to
protect from high G loads at launch, air locks for exiting the spaceship into
the vacume of space, and other amazingly accurate predictions of space travel.
Many of these were done before the first airplane flight. He determined
correctly that the escape velocity from the Earth into orbit was 8 km./second,
and that this could be achieved by using a multi-stage rocket fueled by liquid
oxygen and liquid hydrogen. He predicted the use of liquid oxygen and liquid
hydrogen or liquid oxygen and kerosene for propulsion, spinning space stations
for artificial gravity, mining asteroids for materials, space suits, the
problems of eating, drinking, and sleeeping in weightlessness, and even closed
cycle biological systems to provide food and oxygen for space colonies.
Some of his works include:
"Astronomical Drawings" (1879). The earliest manuscript
of Tsiolkovsky. He drew the Solar System, the distances between the planets,
their satellites, etc.
Space" (1883). Manuscript of Tsiolkovsky, first published in 1956. In this
work, he described the life and ways of motion in free space, zero gravity, all
done without the benefit on any mathematical calculations. It was in this paper
that Tsiolkovsky drew the primitive design of a true Space Craft, which moved
in outer space with the help of reactive forces.
This was the first drawing of Tsiolkovsky's of a
space vehicle, from "Free Space" (1883). It
shows cosmonauts in weightlessness, gyroscopes for attitude control, and an
airlock for exit into free space.
"The Tsiolkovsky Rocket Equation". He
created his calculations about space flight theory on May 10, 1897. The first
publication of the results was in the article "Exploration of the Universe
with Reaction Machines", in the monthly magazine "The Science
Review",# 5 (St.Petersburg, 1903). This was the first publication in the
world on this subject.
His Classic article "Research into Interplanetary
Space by Means of Rocket Power" was published in 1903, the year of the
first airplane flight by the Wright Brothers. It accurately described the state
of weightlessness and the theoretical function of rockets in a vacume. He
demonstrated why rockets would be needed for space exploration, and also
advocated the use of liquid propellants that are used today.
This is his book published in
1914 that was the reprint of the 1903 article.
Space Exploration". This was published in 1926. It consists of 16 Points,
from the very begining of space conquest, until the far distant future,
including interstellar travel.
He also wrote science fiction books, including "On
The Moon (1895), Dreams of the Earth and Sky (1895), and Beyond the Earth
"The Space Rocket Trains". (1929). This publication of
Tsiolkovsky was about his original idea of a multi-stage rocket, which
consisted of several separate rockets, one on top of another. Tsiolkovsky
proved that only such a type of rocket would be able to reach escape velocity
and fly to Earth orbit.
"Album of Space Travels". (1932). The drawings from this
manuscript of Tsiolkovsky show us his brilliant ideas about life in space,
including zero gravity, air pressure locking, space habitats, rocket guidance,
"All the Universe is full of the life of perfect creatures." Tsiolkovsky.
Tsiolkovsky was very much as interested in the philosophy of space
as he was with the engineering needed to make space flight possible. This was
the very begining of Tsiolkovsky's research into space flight problems and was
the basis for it. His main work of this subject was "Ethics or the Natural
Foundations of Morality" (1902-1918). In 1932 Tsiolkovsky wrote "The
Cosmic Philosophy" - the summary of his philosophical ideas. His main idea
was to achieve happiness not only for humanity, but also for all the living
beings in the Cosmos, for all the Universe. He believed that human occupation
of space was inevitable and would drive human evolution.
According to Tsiolkovsky's Cosmic Philosophy,
"happiness" is the absence of all kind of suffering in all the
Universe, for all times, as well as the absence of all of the processes for
destroying goodness. How shall we start this evolution to the "Universial
Happiness"? The main task is to study the laws which rule the Universe. To
do so, we must study the Universe, and therefore we must learn how to live in
outer space. To begin that long period of our evolution, we will have to design
large manned space rockets. So, the first space flight will be the beginning of
the new era of space exploration, the beginning of Space Culture in human
history. It will be the beginning of our history itself. He truly beleived that
it was the destiny of humankind to occupy the solar system and then to expand
into the depth of the cosmos, living off the energy of the stars to create a
cosmic civilization that would master nature, abolish natural catastrophes, and
acheive happiness for all.
1n 1926 Tsiolkovsky defined his "Plan of Space
Exploration", consisting of sixteen steps for human expansion into space:
1) Creation of rocket airplanes
2) Progressively increasing the
speed and altitude of these airplanes.
3) Production of real
4) Ability to land on the surface
of the sea.
5) Reaching excape velocity
(about 8 Km/second), and the first flight into Earth orbit.
6) Lengthening rocket flight
times in space.
7) Experimental use of plants to
make an artificial atmosphere in spacships.
8) Using pressurized space suits
for activity outside of spaceships.
9) Making orbiting greenhouses
10) Constructing large orbital
habitats around the Earth.
11) Using solar radiation to grow
food, to heat space quarters, and for transport throughout the Solar System.
12) Colonization of the asteroid
13) Colonization of the entire
Solar System and beyond.
14) Acheivement of individual and
15) Overcrowding of the Solar
System and the colonization of the Milky Way (the Galaxy).
16) The Sun begins to die and the
people remaining in the Solar System's population go to other suns.
Kosmodemyanksy, Arkady A., 1956. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky: His Life and Works. Foreign Languages
Publishing House, Moscow, Russia.
Shkolenko, Yuri, 1987. The
Space Age. Progress, Moscow.
Samiolovitch, Sergei, I., 1969. Citizen of the Universe: Sketches of the Life and Works of Konstantin
Eduardovitch Tsiolkovsky (in Russian). Tsiolkovsiy State Museum of the
History of Cosmonautics, Kaluga, Russia.