История      компьтера и компьютерной техники История      компьтера и компьютерной техники
История      компьтера и компьютерной техники РЕФЕРАТЫ РЕКОМЕНДУЕМ  
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История компьтера и компьютерной техники

The Comparative Analisis Of The History Of The Computer
Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine.
Aiken's contributions to the development of the computer -notably the Harvard
MarkI (IBM ASSC) machine, and its successor the MarkII - are often excluded
from the mainstream history of computers on two technicalities. The first is
that MarkI and MarkII were electro-mechanical rather than electronic; the
second one is that Aiken was never convinced that computer programs should be
treated as data in what has come to be known as the von Neumann concept, or the
stored program.
It is
not proposed to discuss here the origins and significance of the stored
program. Nor I wish to deal with the related problem of whether the machines
before the stored program were or were not "computers". This subject
is complicated by the confusion in actual names given to machines. For example,
the ENIAC, which did not incorporate a stored program, was officially named a
computer: Electronic Numeral Integrator And Computer. But the first
stored-program machine to be put into regular operation was Maurice Wiles'
EDSAC: Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator. It seems to be rather
senseless to deny many truly significant innovations (by H.H.Aiken and by
Eckert and Mauchly), which played an important role in the history of
computers, on the arbitrary ground that they did not incorporate the
stored-program concept. Additionally, in the case of Aiken, it is significant
that there is a current computer technology that does not incorporate the
stored programs and that is designated as (at least by TEXAS INSTRUMENTSâ)
as "Harvard architecture", though, it should more properly be called
"Aiken architecture". In this technology the program is fix and not
subject to any alteration save by intent - as in some computers used for
telephone switching and in ROM.
was a visionary, a man ahead of his times. Grace Hopper and others remember his
prediction in the late 1940s, even before the vacuum tube had been wholly
replaced by the transistor, that the time would come when a machine even more
powerful than the giant machines of those days could be fitted into a space as
small as a shoe box.
weeks before his death Aiken had made another prediction. He pointed out that
hardware considerations alone did not give a true picture of computer costs. As
hardware has become cheaper, software has been apt to get more expensive. And
then he gave us his final prediction: "The time will come", he said,
"when manufacturers will gave away hardware in order to sell software".
Time alone will tell whether or not this was his final look ahead into the
n the early
1960s, when computers were hulking mainframes that took up entire rooms,
engineers were already toying with the then - extravagant notion of building a
computer intended for the sole use of one person. by the early 1970s,
researches at Xerox's Polo Alto Research Center (XeroxPARC) had realized that
the pace of improvement in the technology of semiconductors - the chips of
silicon that are the building blocks of present-day electronics - meant that
sooner or later the PC would be extravagant no longer. They foresaw that
computing power would someday be so cheap that engineers would be able to
afford to devote a great deal of it simply to making non-technical people more
comfortable with these new information - handling tools. in their labs, they
developed or refined much of what constitutes PCs today, from "mouse"
pointing devices to software "windows".
the work at XeroxPARC was crucial, it was not the spark that took PCs out of
the hands of experts and into the popular imagination. That happened
inauspiciously in January 1975, when the magazine Popular Electronics put a new kit for hobbyists, called the Altair,
on its cover. for the first time, anybody with $400 and a soldering iron could
buy and assemble his own computer. The Altair inspired Steve Wosniak and Steve
Jobs to build the first Apple computer, and a young college dropout named Bill
Gates to write software for it. Meanwhile. the person who deserves the credit
for inventing the Altair, an engineer named Ed Roberts, left the industry he
had spawned to go to medical school. Now he is a doctor in small town in
central Georgia.
To this
day, researchers at Xerox and elsewhere pooh-pooh the Altair as too primitive
to have made use of the technology they felt was needed to bring PCs to the
masses. In a sense, they are right. The Altair incorporated one of the first
single-chip microprocessor - a semiconductor chip, that contained all the basic
circuits needed to do calculations - called the Intel8080. Although the 8080
was advanced for its time, it was far too slow to support the mouse, windows,
and elaborate software Xerox had developed. Indeed, it wasn't until 1984, when
Apple Computer's Macintosh burst onto the scene, that PCs were powerful enough
to fulfill the original vision of researchers. "The kind of computing that
people are trying to do today is just what we made at PARC in the early
1970s," says Alan Kay, a former Xerox researcher who jumped to Apple in
the early 1980s.
PERFORMA 6200/6300
today are proceeding in the same spirit that motivated Kay and his XeroxPARC
colleagues in the 1970s: to make information more accessible to ordinary
people. But a look into today's research labs reveals very little that
resembles what we think of now as a PC. For one thing, researchers seem eager
to abandon the keyboard and monitor that are the PC's trademarks. Instead they
are trying to devise PCs with interpretive powers that are more humanlike - PCs
that can hear you and see you, can tell when you're in a bad mood and know to
ask questions when they don't understand something.
It is
impossible to predict the invention that, like the Altair, crystallize new
approaches in a way that captures people's imagination.
20 computer systems
soldering irons to SparcStations, from MITS to Macintosh, personal computers
have evolved from do-it-yourself kits for electronic hobbyists into machines that
practically leap out of the box and set themselves up. What enabled them to get
from there to here? Innovation and determination. Here are top 20 systems that
made that rapid evolution possible.
Altair 8800
once was a time when you could buy a top-of-the-line computer for $395. The
only catch was that you had to build it yourself. Although the Altair 8800
wasn't actually the first personal computer (Scelbi Computer Consulting`s
8008-based Scelbi-8H kit probably took that honor in 1973), it grabbed
attention. MITS sold 2000 of them in 1975 - more than any single computer
before it.
Based on
Intel`s 8-bit 8080 processor, the Altair 8800 kit included 256 bytes of memory
(upgradable, of course) and a toggle-switch-and-LED front panel. For amenities
such as keyboard, video terminals, and storage devices, you had to go to one of
the companies that sprang up to support the Altair with expansion cards. In
1975, MITS offered 4- and 8-KB Altair versions of BASIC, the first product
developed by Bill Gates` and Paul Allen`s new company, Microsoft.
If the
personal computer hobbyists movement was simmering, 1975 saw it come to a boil
with the introduction of the Altair 8800.
Those of
you who think of the IBM PC as the quintessential business computers may be in
for a surprise: The Apple II (together with VisiCalc) was what really made
people to look at personal computers as business tools, not just toys.
Apple II debuted at the first West Coast Computer Fair in San Francisco in
1977. With built-in keyboard, graphics display, eight readily accessible
expansion slots, and BASIC built-into ROM, the Apple II was actually easy to
use. Some of its innovations, like built-in high-resolution color graphics and
a high-level language with graphics commands, are still extraordinary features
in desk top machines.
With a
6502 CPU, 16 KB of RAM, a 16-KB ROM, a cassette interface that never really
worked well (most Apple It ended up with the floppy drive the was announced in
1978), and color graphics, the Apple II sold for $1298.
introduced at the first West Coast Computer Fair, Commondore`s PET (Personal
Electronic Transactor) started a long line of expensive personal computers that
brought computers to the masses. (The VIC-20 that followed was the first
computer to sell 1 million units, and the Commondore 64 after that was the
first to offer a whopping 64 KB of memory.)
keyboard and small monochrome display both fit in the same one-piece unit. Like
the Apple II, the PET ran on MOS Technology's 6502. Its $795 price, key to the
Pet's popularity supplied only 4 KB of RAM but included a built-in cassette
tape drive for data storage and 8-KB version of Microsoft BASIC in its 14-KB
Shack TRS-80
the Trash 80? Sold at local Radio Shack stores in your choice of color
(Mercedes Silver), the TRS-80 was the first ready-to-go computer to use Zilog`s
Z80 processor.
The base
unit was essentially a thick keyboard with 4 KB of RAM and 4 KB of ROM (which
included BASIC). An optional expansion box that connected by ribbon cable
allowed for memory expansion. A Pink Pearl eraser was standard equipment to
keep those ribbon cable connections clean.
Much of
the first software for this system was distributed on audiocassettes played in
from Radio Shack cassette recorders.
1 Portable
By the
end of the 1970s, garage start-ups were pass. Fortunately there were other
entrepreneurial possibilities. Take Adam Osborne, for example. He sold Osborne
Books to McGraw-Hill and started Osborne Computer. Its first product, the
24-pound Osborne 1 Portable, boasted a low price of $1795.
important, Osborne established the practice of bundling software - in spades.
The Osborne 1 came with nearly $1500 worth of programs: WordStar, SuperCalc,
BASIC, and a slew of CP/M utilities.
was looking good until Osborne preannounced its next version while sitting on a
warehouse full of Osborne 1S. Oops. Reorganization under Chapter 11 followed
soon thereafter.
This is
the system that launched a thousand innovations in 1981. The work of some of
the best people at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) went into it. Several
of these - the mouse and a desktop GUI with icons - showed up two years later
in Apple`s Lisa and Macintosh computers. The Star wasn't what you would call a
commercial success, however. The main problem seemed to be how much it cost. It
would be nice to believe that someone shifted a decimal point somewhere: The
pricing started at $50,000.
Irony of
ironies that someone at mainframe-centric IBM recognized the business potential
in personal computers. The result was in 1981 landmark announcement of the IBM
PC. Thanks to an open architecture, IBM's clout, and Lotus 1-2-3 (announced one
year later), the PC and its progeny made business micros legitimate and
transformed the personal computer world.
The PC
used Intel`s 16-bit 8088, and for $3000, it came with 64 KB of RAM and a 51/4-inch
floppy drive. The printer adapter and monochrome monitor were extras, as was
the color graphics adapter.
Portable almost single-handedly created the PC clone market. Although that was
about all you could do with it single-handedly - it weighed a ton. Columbia
Data Products just preceded Compaq that year with the first true IBM PC clone
but didn't survive. It was Compaq's quickly gained reputation for engineering
and quality, and its essentially 100 percent IBM compatibility
(reverse-engineering, of course), that legitimized the clone market. But was it
really designed on a napkin?
Shack TRS-80 Model 100
before PC-compatible subnotebook computers, Radio Shack came out with a
book-size portable with a combination of features, battery life, weight, and
price that is still unbeatable. (Of course, the Z80-based Model 100 didn't have
to run Windows.)
The $800
Model 100 had only an 8-row by 40-column reflective LCD (large at the time) but
supplied ROM-based applications (including text editor, communications program,
and BASIC interpreter), a built-in modem, I/O ports, nonvolatile RAM, and a
great keyboard. Wieghing under 4 pounds, and with a battery life measured in
weeks (on four AA batteries), the Model 100 quickly became the first popular
laptop, especially among journalists.
With its
battery-backed RAM, the Model 100 was always in standby mode, ready to take
notes, write a report, or go on-line. NEC`s PC 8201 was essentially the same
Kyocera-manufectured system.
you saw it as a seductive invitation to personal computing or a cop-out to
wimps who were afraid of a command line, Apple`s Macintosh and its GUI
generated even more excitement than the IBM PC. Apple`s R&D people were
inspired by critical ideas from Xerox PARK (and practiced on Apple`s Lisa) but
added many of their own ideas to create a polished product that changed the way
people use computers.
original Macintosh used Motorola's 16-bit 68000 microprocessor. At $2495, the
system offered a built-in-high-resolution monochrome display, the Mac OS, and a
single-button mouse. With only 128 KB of RAM, the Mac was underpowered at
first. But Apple included some key applications that made the Macintosh
immediately useful. (It was MacPaint that finally showed people what a mouse is
good for.)
Orwell didn't foresee the AT in 1984. Maybe it was because Big Blue, not Big
Brother, was playing its cards close to its chest. The IBM AT set new standards
for performance and storage capacity. Intel`s blazingly fast 286 CPU running at
6 MHz and 16-bit bus structure gave the AT several times the performance of
previous IBM systems. Hard drive capacity doubled from 10 MB to 20 MB (41 MB if
you installed two drives - just donut ask how they did the math), and the cost
per megabyte dropped dramatically.
16-bit expansion slots meant new (and faster) expansion cards but maintained
downward compatibility with old 8-bit cards. These hardware changes and new
high-density 1.2-MB floppy drives meant a new version of PC-DOS (the dreaded
price for an AT with 512 KB of RAM, a serial/parallel adapter, a high-density
floppy drive, and a 20-MB hard drive was well over $5000 - but much less than
what the pundits expected.
Amiga 1000
Amiga introduced the world to multimedia. Although it cost only $1200, the
68000-based Amiga 1000 did graphics, sound, and video well enough that many
broadcast professionals adopted it for special effects. Its sophisticated
multimedia hardware design was complex for a personal computer, as was its
multitasking, windowing OS.
Deskrpo 386
IBM was busy developing (would "wasting time on" be a better phrase?)
proprietary Micro Channel PS/2 system, clone vendors ALR and Compaq wrestled
away control of the x86 architecture and introduced the first 386-based
systems, the Access386 and Deskpro 386. Both systems maintained backward
compatibility with the 286-based AT.
Deskpro 386 had a further performance innovation in its Flex bus architecture.
Compaq split the x86 external bus into two separate buses: a high-speed local
bus to support memory chips fast enough for the 16-MHz 386, and a slower I/O
bus that supported existing expansion cards.
Macintosh II
When you
first looked at the Macintosh II, you may have said, "But it looks just
like a PC. "You would have been right. Apple decided it was wiser to give
users a case they could open so they could upgrade it themselves. The monitor
in its 68020-powered machine was a separate unit that typically sat on top of
the CPU case.
UNIX had
never been easy to use , and only now, 10 years later, are we getting back to
that level. Unfortunately, Steve Job's cube never developed the software base
it needed for long-term survival. Nonetheless, it survived as an inspiration
for future workstations.
at less than $10,000, the elegant Nextstation came with a 25-MHz 68030 CPU, a
68882 FPU, 8 MB of RAM, and the first commercial magneto-optical drive (256-MB
capacity). It also had a built-in DSP (digital signal processor). The
programming language  was
object-oriented C, and the OS was a version of UNIX, sugarcoated with a
consistent GUI that rivaled Apple`s.
UltraLite is the portable that put subnotebook
into the lexicon. Like Radio Shack's TRS-80 Model 100, the UltraLite was a
4-pounder ahead of its time. Unlike the Model 100, it was expensive (starting
price, $2999), but it could run MS-DOS. (The burden of running Windows wasn't
yet thrust upon its shoulders.)
liked the 4.4-pound UltraLite for its trim size and portability, but  it really needed one of today's tiny hard
drives. It used battery-backed DRAM (1 MB, expandable to 2 MB) for storage,
with ROM-based Traveling Software's LapLink to move stored data to a desk top
PCMCIA, the UltraLite had a socket that accepted credit-card-size ROM cards
holding popular applications like WordPerfect or Lotus 1-2-3, or a
battery-backed 256-KB RAM card.
Sun SparcStation 1
wasn't the first RISK workstation, nor even the first Sun system to use Sun's
new SPARC chip. But the SparcStation 1 set a new standard for price/performance,
churning out 12.5 MIPS at a starting price of only $8995 - about what you might
spend for a fully configured Macintosh. Sun sold lots of systems and made the
words SparcStation and workstation synonymous in many peoples
SparcStation 1 also introduced S-Bus, Sun's proprietary 32-bit synchronous bus,
which ran at the same 20-MHz speed as the CPU.
when IBM decides to do something, it does it right.(Other times... Well,
remember the PC jr.?)The RS/6000 allowed IBM to enter the workstation market.
The RS/6000`s RISK processor chip set (RIOS) racked up speed records and
introduced many to term suprscalar.
But its price was more than competitive. IBM pushed third-party software
support, and as a result, many desktop publishing, CAD, and scientific
applications ported to the RS/6000, running under AIX, IBM's UNIX.
shrunken version of the multichip RS/6000 architecture serves as the basis for
the single-chip PowerPC, the non-x86-compatible processor with the best chance
of competing with Intel.
Apple Power Macintosh
Not many
companies have made the transition from CISC to RISK this well. The Power
Macintosh represents Apple`s well-planned and successful leap to bridge two
disparate hardware platforms. Older Macs run Motorola's 680x0 CISK line, which
is running out of steam; the Power Macs run existing 680x0-based applications
yet provide Power PC performance, a combination that sold over a million
systems in a year.
IBM ThinkPad 701C
It is
not often anymore that a new computer inspires gee-whiz sentiment, but IBM's
Butterfly subnotebook does, with its marvelous expanding keyboard. The 701C`s
two-part keyboard solves the last major piece in the puzzle of building of
usable subnotebook: how to provide comfortable touch-typing.(OK, so the floppy
drive is sill external.)
With a
full-size keyboard and a 10.4-inch screen, the 4.5-pound 701C compares
favorably with full-size notebooks. Battery life is good, too.
The development of computers in ukraine and the
former USSR
government and the authorities had paid serious attention to the development of
the computer industry right after the Second World War. The leading bodies
considered this task to be one of the principal for the national economy.
Up to
the beginning of the 1950s there were only small productive capacities which
specialized in the producing accounting and account-perforating (punching)
machines. The electronic numerical computer engineering was only arising and
the productive capacities for it were close to the naught.
first serious steps in the development of production base were made initially
in the late 1950s when the work on creating the first industry samples of the
electronic counting machines was finished and there were created M-20,
"Ural-1", "Minsk-1", which together with their
semi-conductor successors (M-220, "Ural-11-14", "Minsk-22"
and"Minsk-32") created in the 1960s were the main ones in the USSR
until the computers of the third generation were put into the serial
production, that is until the early 1970s.
In the
1960s the science-research and assembling base was enlarged. As the result of
this measures, all researches connected with creating and putting into the
serial production of semi-conductor electronic computing machines were almost
finished. That allowed to stop the production of the first generation machines
beginning from the 1964.
decades the whole branch of the computer engineering had been created. The
important steps were undertaken to widen the productive capacities for the 3d
generation machines.
the homecity of mesm
ESM was
conceived by S.A.Lebedev to be a model of a Big Electronic Computing Machine
(BESM). At first it was called the Model
of the Big Electronic Computing Machine, but ,later, in the process of its
creation there appeared the evident expediency of transforming it in a small
computer. For that reason there were added: the impute-output devices, magnetic
drum storage, the register capacity was enhanced; and the word "Model" was changed for "Malaya" (Small).
was proposed to head the Institute of Energetics in Kiev. After a year; when
the Institute of was divided into two departments: the electronical one and the
department of heat-and-power engineering, Lebedev became the director of the
first one. He also added his laboratory of analogue computation to the already
existing ones of the electronical type. At once he began to work on computer
science instead of the usual, routine researches in the field of engineering
means of stabilization and structures of automated devices. Lebedev was awarded
the State Prize of the USSR. Since autumn 1948 Lebedev directed his laboratory
towards creating the MESM. The most difficult part of the work was the
practical creation of MESM. It might be only the many-sided experience of the
researches that allowed the scientist to fulfill the task perfectly; whereas
one inaccuracy was made: the hall at the ground-floor of a two-storied building
was assigned for MESM and when, at last, the MESM was assembled and switched
on, 6,000 of red-hot electronic lamps created the "tropics" in the
hall, so they had to remove a part of the ceiling to decrease the temperature.
autumn 1951 the machine executed a complex program rather stabile.
all the tests were over and on December, 15 the MESM was put into operation.
If to
remember those short terms the MESM was projected, assembled, and debugged - in
two years - and taking into consideration that only 12 people (including Lebedev)
took part in the creating who were helped by 15 engineers we shall see that
S.A.Lebedev and his team accomplished a feat (200 engineers and many workers
besides 13 main leaders took part in the creation of the first American
computer ENIAC).
As life
have showed the foundations of the computer-building laid by Lebedev are used
in modern computers without any fundamental changes. Nowadays they are well
such devices an arithmetic and memory input-output
and control ones should be a part of a computer architecture;
the program of computing is encoded and stored in
the memory as numbers;
the binary system should be used for encoding the
numbers and commands;
the computations should be made automatically
basing on the program stored in the memory and operations on commands;
besides arithmetic, logical operations are used:
comparisons, conjunction, disjunction, and negation;
the hierarchy memory method is used;
the numerical methods are used for solving the
main fault of The 70s
years of "might-have-been hopes"
he great
accumulated experience in creating computers, the profound comparison of our
domestic achievements with the new examples of foreign computer technique
prompted the scientists that it is possible to create the computing means of
new generation meeting the world standards. Of that opinion were many
outstanding Ukrainian scientists of that time - Lebedev, Dorodnitsin, Glushkov
and others. They proceeded from quite a favorable situation in the country.
computerization of national economy was considered as one of the most essential
tasks. The decision to create the United system of computers - the machines of
new generation on integrals.
were the first to create the families
of computers. In 1963-64 the IBM Company worked out the IBM-360 system. It
comprised the models with different capacities for which a wide range of
software was created.
decision concerning the third generation of computers (their structure and
architecture) was to be made in the USSR in the late60s.
instead of making the decision based on the scientific grounds concerning the
future of the United system of computers the Ministry of Electronic Industry
issued the administrative order to copy the IBM-360 system. The leaders of the
Ministry did not take into consideration the opinion of the leading scientists
of the country.
the fact that there were enough grounds for thinking the 70s would bring new
big progresses, those years were the step back due to the fault way dictated by
the highest authorities from above.
comparison of the computer development
the usa and ukraine
t the time
when the computer science was just uprising this two countries were one of the
most noticeably influential. There were a lot of talented scientists and
inventors in both of them. But the situation in Ukraine (which at that time was
one of 15 Republics of the former USSR) was complicated, on one hand, with the
consequences of the Second World War and, on the other hand, at a certain
period Cybernetics and Computer Science were not acknowledged. Of cause, later
it went to the past, but nevertheless it played a negative role on the
Ukrainian computer development.
It also
should be noticed that in America they paid more attention to the development
of computers for civil and later personal use. But in Ukraine the attention was
mainly focused on the military and industrial needs.
interesting aspect of the Ukrainian computer development was the process of the
70s when "sovietizing" of the IBM-360 system became the first step on
the way of weakening of positions achieved by the Soviet machinery construction
the first two decades of its development. The next step that led to the further
lag was the mindless copying by the SU Ministry of Electronic Industry and
putting into production the next American elaborations in the field of
microprocessor equipment.
natural final stage was buying in enormous quantities of foreign computers last
years and pressing to the deep background our domestic researches, and
developments, and the computer-building industry on the whole.
interesting aspect of the Ukrainian computer development was the process of the
70s when the "sovietising" of the IBM-360 system became the first
step on the way of weakening of positions, achieved by the Soviet machinery
construction of the first two decades of its development. The next step that
led to the further lag was the mindless copying of the next American
elaborations in the field of microprocessor technique by the Ministry of
Computer Industry.
analyzed the development of computer science in two countries I have found some
similar and some distinctive features in the arising of computers.
First of
all, I would like to say that at the first stages the two countries rubbed
shoulders with each other. But then, at a certain stage the USSR was sadly
mistaken having copied the IBM-360 out of date technology. Estimating the
discussion of possible ways of the computer technique development in the former
USSR in late 1960s - early 1970s from the today point of view it can be noticed
that we have chosen a worse if not the worst one. The only progressive way was
to base on our domestic researches and to collaborate with the west-European
companies in working out the new generation of machines. Thus we would reach
the world level of production, and we would have a real base for the further
development together with leading European companies.
the last twenty years may be called the years of "unrealized
possibilities". Today it is still possible to change the situation; but
tomorrow it will be too late.
Will the
new times come? Will there be a new renaissance of science, engineering and
national economy as it was in the post-war period? Only one thing remains for
us - that is to wait, to hope and to do our best to reach the final goal.
"Історія обчислювальної техніки в особах", Київ, 1995.
2.Stephen G. Nash
"A History of Scientific Computing", ACM Press History Series, New
York, 1990.
кібернетики, Київ, 1985.
4.The America House
Pro-Quest Database: "Byte" Magazine, September, 1995.
5.William Aspray,
Charles Babbage Institute Reprint Series in the History of Computing 7, Los
Angeles, 1985.
"Computer Architecture" in Encyclopedia of Computer Science.
7.Stan Augarten
"Bit by Bit: An Illustrated History of Computers", New York, 1984.
8.Michael R. Williams
"A History of Computing Technology", Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,
"Від БЕСМ до
супер-ЕОМ. Сторінки історії Інституту ІТМ та ОТ ім. С.О.Лебедева АН УРСР у
спогадах співробітників" під редакцією Г.Г. Рябової, 1988.