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:
.
( )
:
IX

:


. 栠

-
, , -

.

,

,

, , ,
, ,
,
.


. 

,
ꠠ 󠠠
.




.  



, , 
,
.
 
.
 


,


.



,
.

.
,


: ,
,
.
,



.



,
.
1.

.
2. .
3. .
4. ,
.
5.



.
۠ ,
Š Ѡ Ƞ
.
father (
)

,

,
dad ,
daddy ,
pa ,
papa .
Ӡ mother


: ma ,
mam ,
mum ,
mamma ,
non ,
mummy .
son ( )
,

daughter ( )


.
ʠ

twins.


,


.
ʠ
( , )


grandpa ,
granddad ,
grandma ,
granny
.




, grandson
granddoughter.




uncle ( ) , aunt ( )
, auntie ( ) ,

Uncle
Jack , Aunt Margaret .


,
, .
brother
sister
.

.
,

brother
sister 2
.
Š Ƞ
Š ۠ ߠ
.



,

.
baby ,
boy ,
dear ,
angel ,
dearest ,
dear boy ,
dear girl ,
friend ,
honey (
", ")
kid ,
love ,
lovely ,
sweet ,
sweatheart ,
sweets .



my
my dear :
my precious ,
my dear son ,
my dear doughter ,
my dear sweet ,
swest heart
.


old :
old boy ,
old chap
,
old man ( ) .
Š
۠ .



Mr. , Mrs., Miss (

) +
( ) ,
: " Mr.
Jones " , I`d like to
tall to you."
Miss
,
- :" Good morning , miss "

- Madam . ,


: Can I help
you , madam ? "


(

) Sir.


- ,

,
,


.
Sir
.


gentlemen , a
Madam - c
ladies : ladies and
gentlemen !

:
,

- Your majesty (" " ):
,

Your Royal
Highness (
" ) ;


Ma`am
Sir;
- Your Grace
(" "
);

;
, ,
- Madam, your Lardship,
y
Lady (
,
) ;
,

- Sir (


Sir


:
Sir John Sir John
Jones);


Lady
:
Lady Anderson ,

: Lady ( Barbara )
Anderson .


:
(
)
Your Grace My
Lord ( . " " );
(
-

) - My Lord ( . " " )
( )
Mr. Archdeacon

[ `a:tS`di:kn ] ;

- Mr. Dean

(

) - Canon ( ) ;



- \ icar /
Rector ( ), Chaplain
(
,

, ,
) ;



f2ather + ;

Your
Reverebce ( "
" )


,



.
ʠ -


My Lord , - Mr Mayor.

- Your Excellency
Sir+ Mr
+ .

,
,


. ,


doctor.

" " ,
: nurse


,

 ;

,


,

sister ;
matron 

.
 

,
,
( ):
Admiral (Smith),
General ,
Colonel ,
Major ,
Captain ,
Lieutenant ,
Sergeant ,.
Corporal


" + "

.


: Sergeant
(. "
"), Inspector (. " " )
.
-
Officer .
 


: Professor,
Senior,
Tutor,
Dean
.
,
,


,
.

. ,


, : " Waiter!",

: "
Porter!",
:" Stop here, driver."
. ,

, everybody,
both of you,
all of you ..

,

.
,
you : " You two ", " You lot "

.
, Š ۠
.




you + +

( ,
).
: You bloody fool,
you bloody
swine ,
you dirty
bastard ,
you old
cow
.

:
you bastard,
you fool .


,
( ):
ass ,
cat ,
cow ,
goat ,
hog ,
jackass ,
louse ,
pig ,
shrew ,
skunk ,
swine ,
turkey ,
vermin
.
 




-
- head
blockhead ,
blunderhead ,
bonehead ,
fathead ,
muttonhead ,
pinhead ,
puddinghead ,
steephead .
Ƞ ߠ ՠ
ߠ .
 

(
8
)

Sir Ma`am
( Madam ).

,
,

, ,

.


-
Mr. President ,
- Mr.
Secretary ,
- Senator,

- Congressman,
- Your Honor ( "
" ) ,

Mr. + ,
Mr. Ambassador .
 




:
Mr. President - -
,
Senator -
,


,
.
 


.

,

( . ) .
,

nothing .



,
.

:
1. Department store
assistant to a
woman customer :
Can I help
you , ... ?
Answer : Madam .
2. Parents to
their child : What are
you doing, ... ?
Answer : dear , love ,
darling .
3. Railway traveler
to a ticket clerk :
One ticket to
Lancaster , please ,... .
Answer : nothing . Grandma Officer viewers ladies and gentlemen Sir caller gentleman Your Majesty Mum mummy listeners men and women Mr. my friend granny daddy Granddad Madam dear darling Love dad mate grandpa
a) Child to
his or her mother : Can I go out,... . ?
b) Telephone operator :
Please hold the line,... .
c) Television presenter to
people watching at home :
Welcome to the Saturday
Night Show, ... .
d) Child to his or her
grandfather : Thank you for the present, ... .
e) Someone to a bank clerk
or librarian : Can you help me, ... ?
f) Someone making a speech
to his audience :I'll try to be brief, ... .
g) Polite shop-assistant
to a male customer :Can I help you, ... ?
h) Someone to the Queen :
Good evening, ... .
i) Customer to a
shop-assistant : Can I try on
this coat, ... ?
j) Wife to her husband
:You look tired, ... .
k) Radio presenter to
people at home : Now we have a
surprise for you, ... .
l) Workman to a man
passing by : What's the time, ... ?
m) Policeman to a man who
asks for help : Yes, ... .
n) Policeman to a woman
who asks for help : Yes, ... .
o) Someone to a policeman
: Excuse me, ... .
p) Child to his or her
grandmother : Here are your glasses, ... .
q) Woman shopkeeper in a
small, friendly shop to a customer : What
would you like, ... ?
r) Soldier to his
commanding officer : Can I go, ... ?
s) Child to his or her
father : Good night, ... .
t) Someone to a stranger
in the street :Excuse me, ... .
Key to the exercise :
a - mum, mummy.
b - caller, nothing.
c - viewers.
d - granddad, grandpa.
e - nothing.
f - ladies & gentlemen.
g - Sir.
h -Your Majesty.
i - nothing.
j - darling, love, dear.
k - listeners.
l - mate.
m - Sir.
n - Madam.
o - officer, nothing.
p - grandma, granny.
q - dear, love.
r - Sir.
s - dad, daddy.
t - nothing.

ʠ ɠ
.
1.
.., ..

- . - ., 1976.
2.
. ., 1990.
3. .., ..




, #5
, 1995.
4. J.
Mortimer Paradise Postponed.
5.
L.Fleischer Shadowlands.
6. J.
Grisham The Firm.
7. S.
Blackburn The Broken boy.

C

I. .
II.
.
1. ,

2.
.
3. .
4. ,

.
III.

.


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